CHE116_Lecture8_2011

CHE116_Lecture8_2011 - Chemistry 116 Chemistry 116 Lecture...

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Chemistry 116 Lecture 8 Topic Acids and Bases pH Topics: Acids and Bases, pH Chapter 16.1 Ͳ 16.4
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Acids and Bases: Arrheniu Acids and Bases: Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water increase the concentration of in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions .
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Acids and Bases: Brønsted Ͳ Lowr An acid is a proton donor . Acids and Bases: Brønsted Lowry A base is a proton acceptor . A Brønsted Ͳ Lowry acid± ±must have a removable (acidic) proton. A Brønsted Lowry base A Brønsted Ͳ Lowry base± ±must have a nonbonding electron pair.
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Acids and Bases: Brønsted Ͳ Lowry The Brønsted±Lowry concept emphasizes proton transfer, so the concept is easily applied to reactions that do not occur in aqueous solution. In the reaction between HCl and NH 3 , for example, a proton is transferred from the acid HCl to the base NH 3 .
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A Gas Ͳ Phase HC g ) escapes from an Acid±Base Reaction HCl( open bottle of concentrated hydrochloric acid. NH 3 ( g ) escapes from aqueous ammonia (ammonium hydroxide). They combine to form a white fog of NH 4 Cl( s ) above the bottles above the bottles.
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Acids and Bases: Brønsted Ͳ Lowr If a substance can serve as both an acid and a Acids and Bases: Brønsted Lowry base, then it is called amphiprotic . Some examples Some examples: HCO 3 Ͳ HSO 4 Ͳ H 2 O
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The H + Ion in Water The interaction of a proton with one water molecule forms the hydronium ion H O + aq ) hydronium ion, H 3 O ( ). The hydronium ion, H 3 O + , is a more realistic interpretation of what is happening in solution rather than just considering a bare H + ion.
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Hydrated Hydronium Ions The actual behavior of the H + ion is even more complicated than just forming H O + ions forming H 3 O ions. There is experimental evidence that the H 3 O + ions interact with more water molecules and forms H 5 O 2 + and H 9 O 4 + clusters in solution.
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What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water?
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2012 for the course CHE 116 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Syracuse.

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CHE116_Lecture8_2011 - Chemistry 116 Chemistry 116 Lecture...

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