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CHE116Chap7,8,9PPT - Learning Objective 1 What is energy...

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Unformatted text preview: Learning Objective 1 What is energy? What energy How is energy related to work and to How heat? heat? Energy Energy is the capacity to do work Heat energy  thermal energy flows from higher temperature thermal to lower temperature to calorie (cal)  Energy required to raise one gram of water Energy one degree C under standard conditions one  Food calories are kilocalories (kcal) 1 Learning Objective 2 What is the difference between potential What energy and kinetic energy? energy and kinetic Potential and Kinetic Potential energy  stored energy Kinetic energy  energy of motion 2 Energy: Potential Energy: and Kinetic and KEY CONCEPTS Energy is the capacity to do work  kinetic energy (energy of motion)  potential energy (energy due to position or (energy state) state) 3 Energy Conversion All forms of energy are interconvertible All interconvertible Photosynthesis converts radiant energy to Photosynthesis radiant to chemical energy chemical Which of the following sources of Which energy is NOT ultimately solar in origin? origin? 1. Food energy 2. Fossil fuels 3. Wind 4. Hydro-electric 5. Geothermal 0% d en er gy Fo ss il fu el s Fo o are solar in origin are 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% W H yd in d ro -e le Al ct lo G ric ft eo he th er ab m ov al e ar e s. .. 6. All of the above All 0 of 5 4 In biological systems, energy 1. Cycles and recycles Cycles re cy cl es ... on ew Is ay cr ea p. .. te Is d ge by ne pl ra an te ts d . by m ito A ... ll of th e ab ov e in a an d 5. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% w s 4. Fl o 3. C yc le s 2. within the system. within Flows in a one-way way path through the system. system. Is created by plants. Is generated by Is mitochondria. mitochondria. All of the above 0 of 5 The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed but Energy can be transferred and changed in form can  Organisms capture energy from their Organisms surroundings surroundings 5 The Second Law of The Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Entropy iin the universe, a closed system, n is continuously increasing. is  Entropy isn t the same thing as disorder . It s the merely the spreading out  of energy into of unusable entropic heat. unusable  No energy transfer is 100% efficient  Some energy dissipates as heat, random Some heat random motion that contributes to entropy entropy  How does this relate to the history of the How universe? universe? Closed and Open Systems Closed system  no energy no exchange with surroundings surroundings Organisms are Organisms open systems open  exchange energy exchange with surroundings with 6 The Earth is a(n) _____ system. The a(n 1. Open 2. Closed 0% C lo se d O pe n 0% 0 of 5 KEY CONCEPTS 1. Energy can’t be created or destroyed - first law of thermodynamics 2. Total energy available to do work in a Total closed system decreases over time closed - second law of thermodynamics Organisms follow laws of thermodynamics - are open systems - use energy from surroundings to do work 7 Which of the following is an Which endergonic process? endergonic 1. Osmosis 2. Catabolism 3. Diffusion 4. Anabolism 5. None of the above 0% 0% An ab ol is m of th e ab ov e 0% No ne D i ff us io n 0% O sm os is C at ab ol is m 0% 0 of 5 Catabolism and Anabolism Catabolism  degradation of large complex molecules into degradation smaller, simpler molecules smaller,  Exergonic (releases energy) Anabolism  synthesis of complex molecules from simpler synthesis molecules molecules  Endergonic (stores energy) 8 ATP Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine triphosphate  immediate energy currency of cells  donates energy of 3rd phosphate group phosphate Formed by phosphorylation of adenosine phosphorylation of diphosphate (ADP) diphosphate  endergonic process ATP and ADP 9 ATP Links Exergonic and ATP Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions Endergonic Energy Sources Photoautotrophs  use light as energy source nto  incorporate atmospheric CO2 iinto organic molecules molecules Chemoheterotrophs  obtain energy by oxidizing chemicals  obtain carbon from other organisms 10 Which type of organism likely Which existed first on planet Earth? existed 1. Photoautotrophs 2. Chemoheterotrophs 3. Chemoautotrophs ro p hs 0% C he m oa ut ot et e ro ph s C he m oh Ph ot oa ut ot 0% ro tr op hs 0% 0 of 5 Learning Objective 1 What are the physical properties of light? What light What is the relationship between a What wavelength of light and its energy? energy 11 Electromagnetic Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum Light Consists of particles (photons) that move Consists (photons) that as waves as Photons with shorter wavelengths have Photons wavelengths have more energy than those with longer wavelengths wavelengths 12 Sunlight Light and Energy 13 KEY CONCEPTS Light energy powers photosynthesis, Light which is essential to plants and most life on Earth on Learning Objective 2 What is the internal structure of a What chloroplast? chloroplast How do its components interact and How facilitate the process of photosynthesis? facilitate 14 Structures Photosynthesis in plants  occurs in chloroplasts occurs chloroplasts  llocated in mesophyll cells ocated mesophyll  iinside the leaf nside leaf Leaf Structure 15 Chloroplasts Enclosed by a double membrane Enclosed  iinner membrane encloses stroma and nner stroma and thylakoids thylakoids Thylakoids  enclose thylakoid lumen enclose thylakoid  arranged in stacks (grana) arranged Photosynthetic Pigments In thylakoid membranes In thylakoid  chlorophyll a chlorophyll  chlorophyll b chlorophyll  Carotenoids 16 What color of light do plants use What most for photosynthesis? most 1. Green 41% 41% 2. Red 3. Blue 4. None of the above 12% No ne of th e ab ov e B lu e R ed G re en 6% Action Spectrum 17 Absorption Absorption Spectra Spectra Learning Objective 3 What happens to an electron in a What biological molecule such as chlorophyll chlorophyll when a photon of light energy is when absorbed? absorbed? 18 Light and Energy Energizing Electrons Photons excite photosynthetic pigments  chlorophyll chlorophyll Energized electrons Energized  move to electron acceptor compounds 19 Energy for Reactions Light-dependent reactions  llight energizes electrons that generate ATP ight ATP and NADPH and Carbon fixation reactions Carbon  use energy of ATP and NADPH to form and carbohydrate carbohydrate Photosynthesis 20 Noncyclic Electron Transport Light-dependent reactions  form ATP and NADPH form KEY CONCEPTS KEY Light-dependent reactions convert light dependent energy to the chemical energy of NADPH and ATP and 21 Light-dependent reactions Carbon fixation reactions Chloroplast ATP Light reactions ADP Calvin cycle NADPH NADP H2O O2 CO2 Carbohydrates Fig. 9-14, p. 203 The Calvin Cycle 22 KEY CONCEPTS Carbon fixation reactions incorporate CO2 into organic molecules Photosynthesis 23 C3 and C4 Plants Plants (CAM) Pathway Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)  similar to C4 pathway pathway PEP carboxylase fixes carbon at night carboxylase  iin mesophyll cells n mesophyll Light reactions occur during the day 24 A CAM Plant Photosynthesis Ultimate source of most chemical energy Ultimate and organic molecules and  available to plants and other organisms Replenishes oxygen in the atmosphere  vital to all aerobic organisms 25 Summary Reactions Overall equation for photosynthesis 6 CO2 +12 H2O (light energy, chlorophyll) (light C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O Where does most of the mass of a Where tree come from? tree 1. It s mostly water. 47% 2. From the soil. 3. The tree converts The 25% ai r. N on e of th e ab ov e. e .. th th e. s ve rt co n Fr om e th tr ee 9% 7% Th e tly m os Fr om w at e so il . r. 12% It’ s the sun s energy the energy into matter. into 4. From the air. 5. None of the None above. above. 26 Learning Objective 1 In aerobic respiration, which reactant is In oxidized and which is reduced? oxidized and reduced C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy 6CO Aerobic Respiration A catabolic process catabolic  fuel (glucose) broken down to carbon dioxide fuel and water and Redox reactions  transfer electrons from glucose (oxidized)  to oxygen (reduced) Energy released released  produces 36 to 38 ATP per glucose 27 KEY CONCEPTS Aerobic respiration is an exergonic redox Aerobic exergonic process in which glucose becomes process oxidized, oxygen becomes reduced, and oxidized oxygen reduced and energy is captured to make ATP energy Learning Objective 2 What are the four stages of aerobic What respiration? respiration? 28 4 Stages of Aerobic Respiration Aerobic 1. Glycolysis 1. 2. Formation of acetyl CoA Formation CoA 3. Citric acid cycle 4. Electron transport chain and Electron chemiosmosis chemiosmosis Glycolysis 29 Formation of Acetyl CoA Formation CoA 1 pyruvate molecule pyruvate  loses 1 molecule of carbon dioxide Acetyl group + coenzyme A Acetyl coenzyme  produce acetyl CoA produce CoA 1 NADH produced per pyruvate NADH pyruvate Citric Citric Acid Cycle Cycle 30 Electron Transport Chain H atoms (or electrons) transfer  from one electron acceptor to another  iin mitochondrial inner membrane n Electrons reduce molecular oxygen Electrons  forming water Oxidative Phosphorylation xidative Phosphorylation Redox reactions in ETC are coupled to reactions ETC are ATP synthesis through chemiosmosis chemiosmosis 31 KEY CONCEPTS Aerobic respiration consists of four stages: consists glycolysis, formation of acetyl coenzyme glycolysis formation A, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis chemiosmosis Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol occurs cytosol All other stages in the mitochondria All mitochondria 32 Energy Energy from Glucose Glucose Anaerobic Respiration Electrons transferred  from fuel molecules to ETC from  coupled to ATP synthesis (chemiosmosis) Final electron acceptor Final  inorganic substance  nitrate or sulfate (not molecular oxygen) 33 Fermentation Alcohol fermentation  in yeast cells  waste products: ethyl alcohol, CO2 Lactate (lactic acid) fermentation  some fungi, prokaryotes, animal cells  H atoms added to pyruvate atoms pyruvate  waste product: lactate Fermentation 34 Summary Reaction Complete oxidation of glucose C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy (36 to 38 ATP) CO Summary Reaction Lactate fermentation C6H12O6 2 lactate + energy (2 ATP) lactate 35 Summary Reaction Alcohol fermentation C6H12O6 2 CO2 + 2 ethyl alcohol + CO ethyl energy (2 ATP) energy For which of the following processes For must you memorize all steps? must Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron transport chain Formation of acetyl co-A Calvin cycle None of the above, until I until take cell biology or biochemistry maybe, and as long as I DO understand the reactants, products, and flow of energy in the summary reactions of both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 97% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% G ly Ci co El tr ly ec ic si tr Ac s on id Fo tr Cy an rm cl sp at e or io tc n of ha ac in et yl N co on C -A e al of vi n th cy e cl ab e ov e, un t.. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 36 ...
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