Final Exam Study Gyide

Final Exam Study Gyide - Good and Bad Excuses: -Good excuse...

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Unformatted text preview: Good and Bad Excuses: -Good excuse makers use excuses in moderation; bad excuse makers rely on excuses too often -Good excuse makers avoid using excuses in the presence of those who know what really happened; bad excuse makers make those mistakes. -Good excuse-makers avoid blaming others; bad excuse makers blame everyone. -Good excuse makers don’t attribute their failure to others; bad excuse makers do —Good excuse makers acknowledge their own responsibility for the failure by noting that they did something wrong; bad excuse makers refuse to accept any responsibility. Communication Skills: Dialogue- A form of communication in which each person is both speaker and listener; communication characterized by involvement, concern, and respect for the other person. Also there is a deep concern for the other person. Mindfulness- A state of awareness in which you’re conscious of your reasons for thinking or behaving; its opposite, mindlessness, is a lack of conscious awareness of how you’re thinking. Flexibility- Ability to adjust communication strategies on the basis of the unique situation. Cultural Sensitivity- An attitude and way of behaving in which you’re aware of and acknowledge cultural differences. Metacommunication- Communication that refers to other communications; its communication about communication. Both verbal and nonverbal messages can be metacommunicational. Openness- Has to do with your willingness to self— disclose— to reveal info about yourself that might normally keep hidden- provided that such disclosure is appropriate. Empathy-Ability to feel what another person feels from that persons point of view without losing your own identity. Positiveness- lnvolves the use of positive rather than negative messages. lmmediacy- Quality of interpersonal effectiveness that creates a sense of togetherness of oneness between speaker and listener. Interaction Management— Techniques and strategies by which you regulate and carry on an interpersonal interaction. Expressiveness- Skill of communicating genuine involvement; it includes abilities such as taking responsibility for your thoughts and feelings, encouraging expressiveness or openness in others, and providing appropriate feedback. Other Orientation! Ability to adapt your messages to the other person. lnvolves communicating attentiveness and interest in the other person and in what the person says. ! Unit 8 Parasocial Relationships: Relationships that viewers perceive themselves to have with media personalities. Ex— Having a TV relationship with Oprah Winfrey Six Stage Relationship Model: -Contact Perceptual contact (you see what a person looks like, you hear what they sound like, you might even smell that person.) lnteractional contact-superficial and impersonal. Ex- “Hello my name is...”Exchanging basic information. -|nvolvement— A sense of mutuality, of being connected, develops. -|ntimacy- A feeling that you can be honest and open when talking about yourself, that you can express thoughts and feelings you wouldn’t reveal in other relationships. Deterioration- The stage that sees the weakening of bonds between the parties and that represents the downside of the relationship progression. Repair— In which you analyze what went wrong and consider ways of solving your relationship difficulties. Dissolution- Cutting of the bonds tying you together. Relationship Theories Attraction Theory- Holds that people form relationships on the basis of attraction. Similarity-It’s likely that your mate would look, act, and think like you. Generally people like other people who are the same as them, nationality, race, abilities, physical characteristics, intelligence, and attitudes. -Comp|ementary- Being attracted to someone who is the opposite of you. Ex— A dominant person might be attracted to someone who is more submissive. Proximity- Physical closeness is most important in the early stages of lnteraction— for example, during the first days of school. Reinforcement— You are attracted to people who give you reinforcements or awards, which can range from a simple compliment to an expensive cruise. Physical Attractiveness and Personality- lt is known that people that like physically attractive people more than they like physically unattractive people. Relationship Rules Theory- Friendship and love in particular are held together by adherence to certain rules. When those rules are broken, relationships deteriorate and dissolve. ' Friendship Rules- Friendships are held together by certain rules and when those rules are followed, the friendship is strong and mutually satisfying, when they are broken, the friendship suffers and dies. Romantic Rules- 1. Acknowledge each other’s individual identities and lives beyond the relationship; 2. Express similar attitudes beliefs values and interests 3. Enhance each other’s self-worth and self-esteem 4. Be open, genuine, and authentic, with each other. 5. Remain loyal and faithful 6.Have substantial shared time together 7. Reap rewards commensurate with their investments relative to the other party 8. Experience a mysterious and inexplicable magic in each other’s presence Relationship Dialectics- Argues that people in a relationship experience dynamic tensions between pairs of opposing motives or desires. The tension between openness and closedness has to do with the conflict between the desire to be in a closed exclusive relationship and the wish to be in a relationship that is open to different people. The tension between autonomy and connection involves the desire to remain an autonomous, independent individual and the wish to connect intimately to another person and to a relationship. The tension between novelty and-predictability centers on the competing desires for newness, different adventures and experiences. Unit 9 Types of Friendships JiffishFriendship of Reciprocity- The ideal type, characterized by loyalty, self sacrifice, mutual affection, and generosity. Based on equality. >{fixFriendship of Receptivity- Imbalance of giving and receiving; one person is the ’ffi-aprimary giver and the other is the primary receiver. Ex—Teacher/Student, Doctor/Patient. Friendship of Association-Friendly relationship rather than a true friendship. Ex- Classmates, neighbors, coworkers. There is no great loyalty, no great trust. Friendship Values §OJJtility- Someone who has special talents or resources that might help you achieve specific goals , f . ’ _ ,... , r . , M » ‘ » \l m “f 25" s I . ,. i s, . . - .» .1 0 we; " , . *Tr‘ n! h , ‘\ . i ‘ j “ 5" may; 7 D i C I p ‘ w j t i I x ' ‘4 A} ~ ‘1- ) C "-'A" / .5 / J-[l/ (w: .357 , J i \‘ \ m C) UV >‘\ t x , , t . l r0 f g 15¢, :4 f 9.0, r“ a 5;, :71 .i .1 X L“n(’ . ' <- t “ ‘y' (Wt/ml" l {a ' ' ' *‘ ' *’ “fl 2‘ ’ ' J t V V ‘r 1"“ ' 5 ' ' < V r/f «vigor f” r r» i a, L i l _ r t J «a 1.; K F r‘ .‘Y I) Affirmation- Someone who will affirm your personal value and help you recognize your attributes Ego Support— Someone who behaves in a supportive, encouraging, and helpful manner. SR\‘Stimulation- Someone who introduces you to new ideas and new ways of seeing the world. Security- Someone who would not hurt you. Three Stages of Relationship Development Initial Contact and Acquaintanceship Casual Friendship - Dyadic Consciousness, a clear sense of “we—ness”, of togetherness. Close and Intimate Friendship Gender and Friendships Women self-disclose more than men do. Male friends self-disclose less often and with less intimate details than females. Women engage in significantly more affectional behaviors with their friends than males. Network convergence— When relationships develop on the internet, the couple shares network of other communicators with each other. Types of Love Eros: Beauty and sexuality Ludus: Entertainment and excitement Storge: Peaceful and slow Pragma: Practical and traditional Mania: Elation and depression Agape: Compassionate and Selfless Four general communication patterns in family relationships I EQUality—m 60”“ EEWZLW 3“"pr gawk/“Nd \‘\ ‘t the (amrt‘w‘rflm‘w W Ar‘AWSwCLZEW‘} ixl‘flh ; “,\ Balanced Split“ ewmfimw I: aw; ,i K ' "b. ,7 xi .A .W ’\ 7. W1 Unbalanced Split -’ a: .. ml be .. i Monopoly -’ Q6“? a; ~ :21; f? 3r 5‘ Unit 10 Basic types of groups primary groups-Groups in which you participate early in life and include, for ex. You immediate family, your group of friends at school, and perhaps your neighbors. secondary groups- Groups formed to accomplish something. Example— committee of college professors formed to hire new faculty member. reference groups-A group in which you derive your values and norms of behavior. Ex- early in life you may compare yourself to siblings or cousins. memberships groups- Group you participate in but do not use as a guide or to measure yourself. Stages of small group development— Opening, feedfoward, business, feedback, closing Small group formats- The Round Table- Group members arrange themselves in a circular pattern The Panel- Group members are experts but participate informally and without any set pattern of who speaks when. The Symposium- Each member delivers a prepared presentation much like a public < f" , z ‘ ,. v WK ‘ g a i v {"V" . “\ r in i a l, x, " For 3‘”... gdflsigwk if M . .r t, a o s t“. x. {w} S _,_ g. \g‘,._—-‘—-—~ Small group culture Norms- Rules or standards of behavior indentifying which behaviors are considered appropriate Roles- Norms that regulate a particular group members behavior that indentify what each person in an organization is expected to do. Cohesiveness— Means that you and the other members are closely connected, are attracted to each other, and depend on one another. Power in the small group (types of power) Power— What enables one person to control the behaviors of others. Legitimate- Appointed group leader Referent— Someone wishes to be like you Reward- Ability to give out rewards Coercive- Ability to remove rewards Expert- Rewarded as having expertise Information- If you’re seen as someone who can communicate logically and persuasively idea—generation groups (brainstorming) Brainstorming- Technique for bombarding a problem and generating as many ideas as possible Personal growth groups— referred to as support groups Encounter Groups- Facilitate members personal growth and foster their ability to deal effectively with other people Assertiveness Training Group- aims to increase the willingness of its members to stand up for their rights to act more assertively in a wide variety of situations. Consciousness-raising group- Helps people cope with the problems society confronts them with. Focus groups- a small group assembled for a kind of in-depth interview. The aim is the figure out what people think about an issue or a product Three methods of decision-making Decision of Authority— members voice their feelings and opinions, but the leader makes the final decision. Decision by Majority Rule- Group members agree to abide by the majority decision and may vote on various issues Decision by Consensus- a unanimous agreement Group problem-solving techniques (nominal group, Delphi, quality circles) Nominal Group- A method of problem solving that uses limited discussion and confidential voting to obtain a group’s decision. Delphi Method- A group of “experts” is established, but there is no interaction among them; instead they communicate by repeatedly responding to questionnaires. Quality Circles- A group of workers whose task it is to investigate and make recommendations for improving the quality of some organizational function. Unit 11 Group task roles lnitiator— contributor: presents new ideas, suggests new goals ect. information seeker- Asks for facts and opinions and seeks clarification Opinion seeker- Tries to discover the vales underlying the groups task Information giver— Presents facts and opinion to the group members Opinion Giver— presents values and opinions Elaborator— Gives examples and tries to work out possible solutions, and builds on what others have said , Coordinator— Spells out relationShips among ideas and suggested solutions and coordinates the activities of different members Orienter— Summarizes what has been said and addresses the direction the group is taking Evaluator— Critic- evaluates the groups decisions, questions the logic or practicality, of the suggestions, and thus provides the group with both positive and negative feedback. Energizer— Stimulates the group to greater activity Procedural Technician— Takes care of various mechanical duties such as distributing group materials and arranging seating. Recorder- Writes down the group’s activities, suggestions, and decisions; serves as the memory. Group-building and maintenance role Encourager- supplies members with positive reinforcement in the form of social approval or praise for their ideas Harmonizer- Mediates differences among group members Compromiser— offers compromises as a way to resolve conflicts between his or her ideas and those of others Gatekeeper- expediter- keeps the channels of communication open by reinforcing the efforts of others Standard setter— Proposes standards for the functioning of the group or for its solutions Group Observer and commentator- Keeps a record of the proceedings and uses this in the groups evaluation of itself Follower— Goes along with the members of the group, passively accepts the ideas of others, and functions more as an audience than as an active member. individual roles Aggressor- Expresses negative evaluation of the actions of feelings of the group members; he or she attacks the group or the problem being considered. Blocker— Provides negative feedback, is disagreeable, and opposes other members or suggestions regardless of their merit. Recognition Seeker— Tries to focus attention on himself or herself rather than on the task at hand, boasting about his or her own accomplishments. Self-confessor— Expresses his or her own feelings and personal perspectives rather than focusing on the group Playboy/Playgirl- Jokes around without any regard for the group process Dominator- Tries to run the group or the members by pulling rank, flattering members of the group, acting as the boss. Help Seeker- Expresses insecurity of confusion or deprecates himself or herself and thus tries to gain sympathy from the other members Special interest Pleader- Disregards the goals of the group and pleads the case of some special group. interaction process analysis (Table 11.1) g g I , - - - - - - \N ,5 «.x-fmih‘; #QH‘W m“*¥”;3cx‘gf9€é“%” Socral-Emotional Pos1trve Contributions v S W2 W w J r ' Social-Emotional Negative Contributions , 5’ them An m 1", afoul-5,1,,» Attempted Answers Questions Symptoms of groupthink Illusion of invulnerability- Groups members think the group and its members are invulnerable Avoidance- Members create rationalizations to avoid dealing with warnings or threats Assumption of morality- Members believe their group is moral and, often, that any opposition is immoral Intolerance of differences of opinion- Those opposed to the group are perceived in simplistic, stereotyped ways, and group pressure is applied to any member who expresses doubts of questions the groups arguments or proposals. Self Censorship— Members censors their own doubts Assumption of unanimity- Group members believe that all members are in unanimous agreement, whether this is stated or not. This belief is encouraged, of course, by other members censoring their own doubts and not allowing differences of opinion to be discussed Gate keeping- Group members emerge whose function it is to guard the info that gets to other members, especially when it may create diversity of opinion Peer pressure- Groupthinkers pressure others to go along with the group and not to express any disagreement Truths and myths about leaders Myths: The skills of leadership are rare- Everyone has the potential for leadership Leaders are born- Leadership skills can be learned by anyone Leaders are all charismatic- Only some leaders are charismatic Approaches to leadership Traits Approach— Argues that leaders must possess certain qualities if they’re to function effectively Functional Approach to leadership— Focuses on what the leader should do in a given situation. Transformational Approach to leadership- The leader elevates the groups members, enabling them not only to accomplish the group task, but also to emerge as more empowered individuals Situational Approach- Focuses on the two major responsibilities of the leader- accomplishing the task at hand and ensuring the satisfaction of the members. la Model ofSituational Leadership (Figure11.1)P 242 3m“- <me9; (3‘Styles of leadership, 243 S The Telling Style- Appropriate for a group that lacks knowledge of the issues involved ‘05:??2; 1” i -. ~ 5“ V :” m, :«C we ~¥q i197 1~ ins ‘9” r W" I , E ‘ if ,, ‘ w ; 4,. _“ 1, ti 5 1,. 3% i" "K/‘d Ur 6“ a; . a , t t V .' fl t If,» m 1.3),“. i ‘ é w] ((w \ {CM Fax/J s, L I ,4. Anya, 9,. k.“ J‘gv twat), 5, ‘ e. V v ._ «_, , we ’5. “ Q E 21,;19‘4 L35" Kayaks; Ctzflygaq , a , ’zr»fi14'.i\f and needs the direct guidance of the telling leader, the leader who tells the members what they should do. The selling style- Appropriate for a group who is trying hard but still lacks the needed skills or info to accomplish their task Participating Style— appropriate for groups that know what to do but may not be so willing to do it Delegating Style— Appropriate for groups that know what to do and are eager to do it. Membership, leadership, and culture (Asian cultures) Asian cultures, influenced by Confucian principles, believe that “ the protruding nail gets pounded down” and are therefore not likely to voice disagreement with the majority of the group. Characteristics of ethical leadership Concern for the welfare of their members Honesty ‘ Accountability Unit 12 Myths about conflict 1. Conflict is best avoided 2.lf two people are in a relationship conflict, it means they have a bad relationship 3.Conflict damages an interpersonal relationship or small group 4. Conflict is bad because it reveals our negative selves— our pettiness, our need to be in control, our unreasonable expectations. Sexual orientation and conflict issues, 253 1. Intimacy issues such as affection and sex 2. Power issues such as excessive demands or possessiveness, lack of equality in the relationship, friends and leisure time. 3. Personal flaws issues such as drinking or smoking personal grooming driving style 4. Personal Distance issues such as frequently being late orjob commitments 5. Distrust issues such as previous lovers and lying Contexts of conflict Physical Context— Will influence the way the conflict is conducted as well as the effects that this conflict will have. Sociopsychological context— The atmosphere of the conflict will affect the conflict. A friendly or hostile context will exert different influences on the conflict Temporal Context- a conflict that follows a series of similar conflicts will be seen “ s : a» - :‘ am ,-~ . C ‘ g »- x as .. I Aw >2 . , \' ...., "t' , n ‘- g r» : av w“; . ~i- . i~ w 5.5., erifi. differently than a conflict that follows a series of enjoyable experiences and an absence of conflict. Relationship and content conflicts, 256 Content Conflicts— center on objects, events and persons in the world that are usually, though not always, external to the parties involved in the conflict. Relationship Conflicts- equally numerous and include such conflict situations as younger brother who does not obey his older brother, group members who all want to final say in what the group decides. Procedural and people conflicts, 257 Procedural- Involve disagreements over who is in charge, what the agenda or task of the group should be, and how the group should conduct its business. People conflicts- Can occur when one member dominates the group, when several members battle for control, or when some members refuse to participate. Conflict styles, 258 Competing- I win, you lose philosophy Avoiding- I lose, you lose Accommodating- I lose, you win Collaborating- I win, you win Compromising- I win and lose and you win and lose Conflict strategies (avoidance, nonnegotiation, steamrolling, gunnysacking, beltlining) 261-264 Avoidance- May involve actual physical flight: You may leave the room Non—negotiation— Special type of avoidance where you refuse to discuss the conflict of listen to the other persons argument Steamrolling- Gunnysacking—Unproductive strategy where you store up grievances so as to unload them at another time Beltlining- Hitting someone below the emotional belt line {a V ‘3: -~ Assertiveness- Means acting in your own best interests without denying or infringing on the rights of others . ‘\" 4 F- 1..., . i‘ - I i» s ' 'v Argumentatlveness- w “39%? New {Ta-r ~ as w ~-"’ Verbal aggressiveness- an unproductive conflict strategy in which one person tries to win an argument by inflicting psychological pain by attacking the other persons self- concept m Unit 13 4 Diffusion of innovations theory, 276 ‘ Focuses on the ways in which mass communications influence people to adopt something new or different. pa" _ ageflggai’”; J ("'33 "'1 Apprehension in public speaking (performance visualization, systematic desensitization), 277-280 Performance Visualization- Argues that you can reduce the outward signs of apprehension and the negative thinking that often creates anxiety through a few simple techniques Systematic Desensitization- holds that you can reduce fear through a process of gradually adapting to lesser and then successively greater versions of the thing you fear. ;' (s1 aw: r Ms. » “1‘ {Hi 143.3 “r , 1K" “ l‘ w u ‘ : L'Qcfl; Id. : Limiting topics, 284-286 Topoi, the System of Topics— asking yourself a series of questions about your general subject _ Tree Diagrams- help you divide your topic repeatedly into constituent parts Search Directories- a more resourceful way of choosing your topic is letting a search directory do it for you Attitudes, beliefs, and values, 289 Attitude- a tendency to act for against a person, object, or position. Beliefs— Confidence or conviction you have in the truth of some proposition. Values- Refers to your perception of the worth or goodness of some concept or idea. Plagiarism- Refers to passing off the work of others as our own. Primary and secondary sources Primary- include, for example, an original research study reported in an academic journal, a corporation’s annual report, or an eyewitness report of an accident. Secondary Sources- Include, for example, a summary of research appearing in a popular magazine, a television news report on a corporations earnings, or a report by someone who talked to a person who witnessed an accident. Unit 14 Guidelines for stating your thesis, 309-310 -In an informative speech, state thesis early and state it clearly and directly -In a persuasive speech before a neutral or positive audience, state your thesis explicitly and early -De|ay revealing your thesis until you’ve moved your listeners closer to your point of view in a persuasive speech -Recognize there are cultural differences in the way the thesis should be stated. Types of narratives, 313 Explanatory narratives explain things the way they are. Exemplary narratives provide examples of excellence Persuasive narratives try to strengthen or change beliefs and attitudes Types of analogies, 313 Figurative Analogies- compare items from different classes Literal Analogies- Compare items from the same class, such as two cars or two cities Types of definitions, 314-315 Etymology- a words historical or linguistic development Authority- You can clarify a term by explaining how a particular authority views it Negation— Noting what the term is not; Ex: “A teacher is not someone who tells you what you should know but rather who.” Symbolization- by showing an actual picture or a model of it Organizational patterns, 327-330 Temporal Pattern- Organize your speech in to two three or four major parts, beginning with past and working up to present or future Spatial Pattern- Organizational pattern that listeners will find easy to follow as your progress from top to bottom or left to right. Topical Pattern- Useful when you topic divides itself onto subdivisions. Problem- Solution Pattern- Useful in persuasive speeches where you want to convince your audience that a problem exists and that you want to solve it. Motivated sequence pattern-an organizational pattern in which you arrange your info so as to motivate your audience to respond positively to your purpose l"\< rack!" “, 1,“? ,1 U‘Jl ./_L_‘,/—fl,:~v,z,r, tr: 51:" .: Ola/L. 1.}, v \ ~f . Vividnessfl WMva was vxr‘m “C ct'fmtt 1"” “ Unit 15 Guidelines for using one-sided and two-sided messages, 339 1. Using a two-sided presentation generally helps est. your credibility; by mentioning the other side you knowledge. 2. In a two-sided make sure to demonstrate the superiority of your position and the reasons why the other position is not as good as yours 3. If your audience is aware of an alternative position, then you need to demonstrate that you too are aware of it but that it’s not as good as your position 4. Demonstrate that you have analyzed the alternative position as carefully as the positior; you’re supporting. 93,5413 Sample outlines 340-343 Preparation Outline- p 341-345. They use topical organizational patterns. Template outline- Ensures that you can include all relevant material in reasonable order The phrase/key-word presentation outline- An outline that will assist rather than hinder your delivery of the speech. Figures of speech-Stylistic devices that have been a part of rhetoric since ancient times. Alliteration-repetition of the same sound in two or more words Hyperbole-Extreme exaggeration IronyaUse of a word of sentence whose literal meaning means something opposite that the message actually conveyed Metaphor-Comparing two unlike things by stating that one thing is the others “She’s a lion when she wakes up” Synecdoche- Use of a part of an object to stand for whole object “All hands are on deck” Metonymy- Substitution of a name for a title with which its closely associated, as in “City Hall issued the following news release” which “City Hall” is the mayor. Antithesis-“My loves are many, my enemies are few” Simile-Comparing two unlike objects using “like” or “as” Personification- Giving something unhuman, human characteristics Rhetorical Questions— Questioned asked without needed a response Guidelines for choosing your words, 348-354 Clarity ” ((Q. 5(chvfigz}fi g; Q A m ? xrwf s ~i I... v” — my? stay-W: f»; v5 g. m,/.- is» Jqfiogg is.» , F ‘wxm «(y-{x} , Appropriateness Personal Style Forcefulnessl Power Guidelines for effective speech rate, 360 The speaker who is speaking against your existing attitudes will talk at a normal rate the speaker who is in favor of you attitudes will talk rapidly. Unit 16 Principles of informative speaking, 374, 379-383 Limit the amount of info Adjust the Level of Complexity Stress Relevance and Usefulness Relate New Info to Old Vary the Levels of Abstraction Information theory, 379 This theory defined information as that which reduces uncertainty. § ,u i \ mdlevgfi“ I" 47“? {‘64 64' ({Q‘f‘Mff‘4fi9 [Kick J(~ $7 in; 95“§alx\fsng I 3” {gm nugfigc,‘ Signal-to-noise ratio, 381 A useful way of looking at info is in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio. Signal in this context refers to info that is useful to you, info you want. Noise is what you find useless Types of informative speeches (description, definition, demonstration), 383-389 Description- You’re concerned with explaining an object, person, event, or process Definition- What is leadership? What is safe sex? These are all examples of definition speeches Demonstration- You show the audience how to do something or how something operates Unit 17 Foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face techniques, 395, 397 Foot-in-the-door: Involves requesting something small, something that your audience will easily agree to. Door-in-the-face: You first make a large request that you know will be refused and then follow it with a more moderate request Identification, 397 If you can show your audience that you and they share important attitudes, beliefs, and values you’ll clearly advance your persuasive goal. Types of reasoning, 398-399 Reasoning from Specific Instances and Generalizations- you examine several specific instances and then arrive at a generalization about the whole Reasoning from Cause to Effect- You can go in either of two directions. You may reason from cause to effect of from effect to cause. Reasoning from Sign- involves drawing a conclusion on the basis of the presence of signs because they frequently occur together Fallacies in reasoning, 399-400 Anecdotal evidence: inadequate in that it relies on too few observations Straw man: an argument that’s set up merely to be knocked down Appeal to tradition: Arguing about change Bandwagon: attempt to persuade the audience to accept or reject an idea or proposal because “everybody’s doing it" Testimonial: using the image associated with some person to gain your approval Transfer: appeals the speaker associates her idea with something you respect or with something to detest. Plain Folks: the speaker identifies himself or herself with the audience Card Stacking: speaker selects only the evidence and arguments that support his or her case. Thin entering wedge: Speaker arguing against a position on the grounds that is a thing entering wedge. Agenda Setting: A speaker indicates that X is the issue and that all others are unimportant and insignificant Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, 400-402) Physiological needs Safety needs Belonging and Love needs Self-esteem needs Self— Actualization Needs J Ca; m’ m: m wig mm? & Qualities of credibility, 403-406 Competence- includes both knowledge and expertise Character- An audience will find you as credible if you have a high moral character Charisma- A combo of your personality and dynamism as seen by the audience Credibility Errors: personal interest, character attacks, name calling Persuasive speeches on questions of fact, value, and policy, 408-410, 413-416 Questions of Fact: Concern what is or what is not true Value: Concern what people consider good or bad or immoral Policy: Concern what should be done, what procedures should be adopted, what laws should be changed. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2012 for the course SPCH 2123 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Oklahoma State.

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Final Exam Study Gyide - Good and Bad Excuses: -Good excuse...

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