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che106_lecture16

che106_lecture16 - Chemistry 106 Lecture 16 Topic...

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Chemistry 106 Lecture 16 Topic: Periodicity, Charge Chapter 7.1-7.3
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Periodic Table
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Development of the Periodic Table Elements in the same group generally have similar chemical properties. Physical properties are not necessarily similar, however. Sulfur Oxygen
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Development of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (both in 1869) independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be grouped.
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Development of the Periodic Table Mendeleev predicted the discovery of germanium (which he called eka-silicon) as an element with an atomic weight between that of zinc and arsenic, but with chemical properties similar to those of silicon.
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Periodic Properties The periodic law states that when the elements are arranged by atomic number, their physical and chemical properties vary periodically. We will look at three periodic properties: Ø Atomic radius (size of atoms and ions) Ø Ionization energy Ø Electron affinity
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Atomic Radius Within each period (horizontal row), the atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number . Within each group (vertical column), the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number .
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Atomic Radius Two factors determine the size of an atom. One factor is the principal quantum number, n . The larger is “n”, the larger the size of the orbital. The other factor is the effective nuclear charge ( Z eff) , which is the positive charge an electron experiences from the nucleus minus any “shielding effects” or “screening effects” from intervening electrons .
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