che106_lecture16

che106_lecture16 - Chemistry 106 Lecture 16 Topic:...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 106 Lecture 16 Topic: Periodicity, Charge Chapter 7.1-7.3 Periodic Table Development of the Periodic Table • Elements in the same group generally have similar chemical properties. • Physical properties are not necessarily similar, however. Sulfur Oxygen Development of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (both in 1869) independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be grouped. Development of the Periodic Table Mendeleev predicted the discovery of germanium (which he called eka-silicon) as an element with an atomic weight between that of zinc and arsenic, but with chemical properties similar to those of silicon. Periodic Properties • The periodic law states that when the elements are arranged by atomic number, their physical and chemical properties vary periodically. • We will look at three periodic properties: Ø Atomic radius (size of atoms and ions) Ø Ionization energy Ø Electron affinity Atomic Radius • Within each period (horizontal row), the atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number . • Within each group (vertical column), the atomic radius tends to increase with the period number . Atomic Radius • Two factors determine the size of an atom. • One factor is the principal quantum number, n . The larger is “n”, the larger the size of the orbital. • The other factor is the effective nuclear charge ( Z eff) , which is the positive charge an electron experiences from the nucleus minus any “shielding effects” or “screening effects” from intervening electrons . Sizes of Atoms...
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2012 for the course CHE 106 taught by Professor Freedman during the Fall '08 term at Syracuse.

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che106_lecture16 - Chemistry 106 Lecture 16 Topic:...

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