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1_DNA - 1 Molecular Genetics DNA This lecture reviews a few...

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1. Molecular Genetics: DNA This lecture reviews a few basic facts about genetics and DNA. There is a lot of information available from the Department of Energy. They have a primer on molecular genetics available on the web. This is a short course in some techniques in molecular biology. 1.1. Genetic code. DNA is a long molecule consisting of a string of base-pairs. Each base is a molecule called a nucleotide. There are four of these: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. We abbreviate these with the letters A, C, G, T. A long string of these four letters creates a code word, a gene, which gives instructions for the manufacturing of a protein. The reason that the code can be duplicated and passed along is that the nu- cleotides pair only in certain ways: A pairs with T, and C pairs with G. These are called complementary base pairs. When the string of base pairs is pulled apart, we get two strings of complementary basepairs, each containing the same information.
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