Lecture - Physics at the High Energy Frontier John Paul...

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Physics at the High Energy Frontier John Paul Chou
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F = G N m 1 m 2 r 2 ˆ r Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC Newton and Unifcation 2 Terrestrial Gravity Celestial Gravity
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Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC The Fast and Fundamental • The four realms of mechanics • Particle interactions necessarily involve small, fast interactions • Rely on quantum Feld theory to describe interactions • Underlying symmetries of Q±T • Lorentz Invariance (special relativity) – energy and momentum conserved • Unitarity (probability conservation) – fully probabilistic • More than the sum of the parts: Q±T predicts antiparticles and the CPT theorem 3 Classical mechanics Quantum mechanics Relativistic mechanics Quantum Feld theory ±ast Small
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Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC The Standard Model • The standard model of particle physics describes a remarkable range of phenomena • The interactions of particles are described by Quantum Field Theory (i.e. Quantum Mechanics + Special Relativity) • All known matter particles are made up of some combination of quarks and leptons interacting via force carrying bosons 4
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Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC The Four Forces of Nature • Strong Force (~10) • Keeps the nucleons in the atom together • All “colored” particles (e.g. quarks/gluons) interact via strong force • Force is mediated by the gluon • Electromagnetic Force (~10 -2 ) • All “charged” particles interact under this force • Field description discovered by Maxwell • Force is mediated by the photon • Weak Force (~10 -13 ) • Governs many radioactive decays (n p + e - ! ) • Both leptons and quarks interact under this force • Force is mediated by “heavy photons” (W ± and Z 0 ) • Gravitational Force (~10 -42 ) • Not a part of the standard model • quantum theory exists, but non-renormalizable • Force is mediated by the graviton • The question of uni²cation is how all of these forces are related to each other 5 strong interaction EM interaction Weak interaction
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Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC The Quark Model • 1974: November Revolution • The charm quark is discovered at SLAC and Brookhaven • Gell-Mann’s quark theory is right! • protons and neutrons are made up of a triplet of “colored” particles, called quarks 6
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Honors Physics III Guest Lecture – Monday, November 21 st , 2011 – J PC Three Quarks for Muster Mark • The Strange Properties of Quarks • Quarks come in three colors: red , green , blue • Anti-quarks come in anti-colors: anti-red , anti-green , anti-blue • These are just degrees of freedom, not to be associated with the “usual” notion of color • Strong Force binds quarks together to form baryons (quark triplets) and mesons (quark-anti-quark pairs) !
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2012 for the course PHYS 273 taught by Professor Kalekar during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture - Physics at the High Energy Frontier John Paul...

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