CHAP4,8,10

CHAP4,8,10 - Lipids and Membrane Proteins Biophysical...

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Unformatted text preview: Lipids and Membrane Proteins Biophysical Chemistry 1, Fall 2010 Fundamentals of lipid/membrane structure Fundamentals of membrane protein structure Channels and pores Reading assignment: Chaps. 4 & 10 all perfect. Back tosuccessfully adapted to their different environments and in this sense, become the cell: However, some of them may not be perfect tomorrow and can thereby FIGURE 1.3 A schematic picture of an animal cell showing sub-cellular structures, such as nucleus, membrane systems (ER), mitochondrion, etc. (Made by Michael W. Davidson, Florida State University.) the formation of a bilayer structure. If P > 1, the lipid molecules are wedge-shaped Basic chemistry of lipids to curve towards the water region, i.e. it forms and the lipid monolayer prefers reversed micelles or an HII liquid crystalline phase (Fig. 4.12). FIGURE 4.10 As an example of a typical lipid, the figure shows a phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, PC, often called lecithin). Its amphiphilic character is seen by the hydrophobic hydrocarbon acyl chains (tails) and the hydrophilic polar head group connected by the backbone, in this case glycerol. tural Biology Lipids self-assemble... Lipid molecule Lipid bilayers Micelles Reversed micelles Liposomes or vesicles ....and make complex membranes: FIGURE 4.4 dipalmitoylphospholipid molecule where the Controlling Athe amount of unsaturation chiral carbon on the glycerol moiety is indicated. O O3 O4 P O2 O1 Cg3 O sn-1, all C1 6 C1 O O N+ Cg2 Cg1 C1 C2 C1 6 C2 9 9 C1 8 10 C2 sn-2, DPPC 10 sn-2, POPC sn-2, PLPC 12 13 C1 8 sn-2, PAPC 5 C2 6 8 9 11 12 14 15 C2 0 sn-2, PDPC C2 4 5 7 8 10 11 13 14 16 17 19 20 C2 2 FIGURE 4.5 Phosphatidylcholine with some of the most common fatty acyl chains. DPPC stands for dipalmitoyl-PC; POPC for palmitoyloleoyl-PC; PLPC for palmitoyllinoleoyl-PC; PAPC for palmitoylarachidonyl-PC; and PDPC for palmitoyldocosahexaenoyl-PC. 4.2.1.1 Phospholipids As major constituents of biological membranes, phospholipids play a key role in all living cells. The two principal groups of phospholipids are the glycerophospholipids that contain glycerol, and the sphingophospholipids that contains the alcohol, sphingosine (Fig. 4.6). A number of different polar head groups can be found in phospholipids, for example, choline and ethanolamine that yield zwitterionic head groups at neutral Lipid phase diagrams 132 A Textbook of Structural Biology t oC 60 Lα Lβ’+Lα 50 Pβ’+Lα Lβ’ Tm 40 Pβ’ Pβ’+H2O Lβ’+Pβ’ Lβ’+H2O 30 5 10 15 20 H2O/DPPC mol/mol FIGURE 4.7 A partial phase diagram of DPPC and water. At low temperature the gel, Lβ ′, phase is formed and at high temperature and relatively high water content, a lamellar liquid crystalline, Lα, phase is stable. In the middle of the phase diagram the ripple Pβ ′ phase is stable in a narrow region of temperature and water content. (Adapted with permission from Ulmius J, Wennerström H, Lindblom G, Arvidson G. (1977) Deuteron NMR studies of phase equilibria in a lecithin-water system. Biochemistry 16: 5742–5745. Copyright (1997) American Chemical Society.) in gray. The components defining the packing parameter are indicated. Types of structures P=v/al Reversed Micelles Reversed Hexagonal HII P>1 Cubic Lamellar Lα P=1 Hexagonal HI P<1 Micelles P<1/3 se structure (illustrated in Fig. 4.15 below) or at the necks of budding vesicle Lamellar (membrane) phases have curvature R1 Negative Zero Positive R2 RE 4.13 Left: The definition of the two radii of membrane curvature. In this case with dle-shaped surface the two radii have different signs. Right: Illustration of the definition sign of the radius of curvature (by convention). Lipid packing and lateral pressure The Basics of Lipids and Membrane Structure 141 Head group repulsion (π > 0) Interfacial tension (π < 0) Chain repulsions (entropic) (π > 0) z Interfacial tension Head group repulsion π(z) 0 FIGURE 4.17 Illustration of the lateral pressure, p(z), profile in a lipid bilayer. A coordinate system, z, along the normal to lipid bilayer, showing the pressure distribution across the bilayer is schematically indicated to the right. The lateral pressure in the middle of the bilayer can be very high. However, the total pressure over the bilayer is zero. (Courtesy of Ole Mouritsen.) Pressure and conformation 2 Membrane fusion A Textbook of Structural Biology FIGURE 4.25 Above. Steps in the fusion of membrane. The beginning and final stages are seen lateral diffusive motion, and that they are temporarily confined into a L membrane. theipid domains and rafts 4.27 A cartoon of the fluid mosaic model of a biological membrane from ing to Singer and Nicolson. The yellow transmembrane molecules represent chole e green parts sticking out into the solution represent sugar molecules. (Courte a Kunkel.) Basic classification schemea for membrane proteins In 1948 Benjamin Libet identified membrane-bound enzyme — an ATPase from giant squid nerves. At this time there were also large breakthroughs in the FIGURE 10.1 Different categories of membrane proteins. What we knew 5-10 years ago 338 A Textbook of Structural Biology FIGURE 10.2 Projection map (left) and 3D reconstruction from tilt series (right) of bacteriorhodopsin as derived by Henderson and Unwin in 1975 using electron microscopy on 2D crystals of “purple membranes.” (Reprinted with permission from Henderson R, Unwin PNT. (1975) Three-dimensional model of purple membrane obtained by electron microscopy. Nature 257: 28–32. Copyright (1975) Nature.) Seven transmembrane helices Membrane Proteins 343 FIGURE 10.6 Lipid molecules surrounding the structure of bacteriorhodopsin. The structure gives a nearly complete view of the lipidation of a membrane protein and is a basis for understanding the complex nature of protein-lipid-water interfaces. The retinal molecule is shown in blue and the lipids are in yellow (carbon atoms) and red (oxygen atoms) (PDB: 1C3W, 1QJH). The photosynthetic reaction center Membrane Proteins 339 FIGURE 10.3 The first atomic structure of a complex membrane protein — the photosynthetic reaction center from R. viridis. Left: A cartoon representation. The cytochrome subunit C is shown in yellow, the transmembrane subunits L and M in orange and blue respectively, and the cytoplasmic H subunit (with a single transmembrane helix) in red. The electron-conducting ligands are indicated by semitransparent spheres with heme groups in the C subunit in red, bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins in green, and quinones in magenta (PDB: 1PRC). There is a pseudosymmetry between the L and M subunits relating also the ligands starting from the “special pair” of chlorophylls at the center and dividing into two branches. Middle: (PDB: 1C3W, 1QJH). Pumps, transporters, and channels FIGURE 10.7 Left: Schematic overview of transport mechanisms. Top: A primary transporter (a pump) establishes an electrochemical gradient for the red cation. Middle: A secondary transporter exploiting the electrochemical gradient for active symport of the yellow solute (e.g. other ions, metabolites, sugar, neurotransmitters). Bottom: A channel allowing for the downhill transport of the red cation with rates being limited by diffusion through the selectivity filter. Right: The different principles of gated channels and an active transporter. The transporter (bottom) is represented as an inverted dimer, providing a simple basis for the design of inward and outward facing conformations. Combined with an energy source such as ATP hydrolysis or an electrochemical gradient, the transporter achieves a vectorial Some nomenclature Channels Transporters primary transporters (pumps) create gradients secondar y transporters use existing gradients Coupled transport sympor ters take to species (often ions) in the same direction (sodium/glucose transport) antipor ters (exchangers) allow ions to exchange (e.g. sodium/calcium exchanger) Signal transduction (mostly G-protein coupled receptors) β -barrel channels; porins 340 A Textbook of Structural Biology FIGURE 10.4 The structure of the bacterial outer membrane protein porin, subsequently named OmpF, showing a transmembrane β -barrel structure (PDB: 2OMF). The iron-citrate outer membrane transporter Membrane Proteins 345 FIGURE 10.8 The E. coli FecA iron-citrate outer membrane transporter (PDB: 1KMO, 1PO3) is based on a 22-stranded β -barrel structure (cyan to red spectrum) with an N-terminal domain (blue) plugged in the middle of the barrel that acts as a gating domain for two citrate-chelated Fe3+ ions (white sticks and magenta spheres in the substrate-bound complex to the right). β -barrel proteins are also responsible for the pathogenicity of some bacteria and viruses in their strategy for invasion/spreading or foraging through pene- FIGURE secondaryof the structure structure in channels protein α vs. β10.4 The transmembrane bacterial outer membrane2OMF). porin, subsequently named OmpF, showing a β -barrel structure (PDB: FIGURE 10.5 Left: A comparison of the hydrogen-bonding schemes of α-helical and β-barrel structures. Right: An illustration of the very different patterns of exposure of side chains to the lipid phase. The α- and β-structures are not drawn to scale. The α-helical structure represents a 21-residue transmembrane helix. (Figure courtesy of Dr. Maike Bublitz.) different: β -barrels are defined by “long-range” hydrogen bonds between individual strands that leave little room for conformational changes while keeping the hydrogen bonds intact; in contrast, α-helices form local (n + 4) hydrogen bonds that allow for conformational changes in the helix configurations across the mem- o The aquaporin channel NPA sequences juxtaposed. The KcsA potassium channel 348 A Textbook of Structural Biology FIGURE 10.10 The KcsA potassium channel. The tetramer as viewed from above (left) and from the side (right). The tetramer defines a selectivity filter and a central vestibule in the membrane stabilized by the dipoles of the helices forming the filter. Because of this, the effective transmembrane distance is significantly reduced. The conformation of the lower passage of the channel defines whether the gate is open or closed (PDB: 1K4C). stabilized by the dipoles of the helices forming the filter. Because of this, the effective trans- Themembrane distance is significantly reduced. The conformation of the lower passage of the chanKcsA potassium channel nel defines whether the gate is open or closed (PDB: 1K4C). FIGURE 10.11 The selectivity filter of KcsA at high potassium concentration. Only two subunits are drawn. A number of K+ ions (lilac) are filling the filter, but only every second position in the filter can be occupied by one ion at a time. Carbonyl oxygens are facing the channel and restricting the passage to ions of suitable size to match the coordination distances provided by the tetrameric arrangement of carbonyl groups at the filter. Below the filter, one ion is found in the vestibule, coordinated again by eight water molecules and stabilized by the negatively charged end of four helix dipoles (two of which are shown). The leucine transporter 364 A Textbook of Structural Biology FIGURE 10.24 A possible mechanism for transport of leucine and two sodium ions by the symporter LeuT. At least three states are needed: Open to outside when leucine and sodium can be exchanged with the solvent outside the cell; Occluded state when the transported ions are enclosed in LeuT; Open to inside when leucine and sodium can be exchanged with the solvent inside the cell. TCA inhibitors lock the transporter in the occluded state (Adapted with permission from Singh SK, Yamashita A, Gouaux E. (2007) Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters. Nature 448: 952–956. Copyright (2007) Nature Publishing group). substrate and one of the sodium ions. The different conformational states have not been experimentally explored, but the discontinuous helices could be part of the structural changes. Bacteriorhodopsin: light signaling Membrane Proteins 355 FIGURE 10.17 The structure of bacteriorhodopsin with arrows and side chain indicating the proton translocation pathway, coupled to the light-driven cis-trans isomerization of retinal coupled by a Schiff’s base link to the side chain amine of Lys216. the extracellular environment per photoisomerization cycle is therefore in place. This mechanism — a proton-conducting pathway including titratable Asp and The photosynthetic reaction center Membrane Proteins 339 FIGURE 10.3 The first atomic structure of a complex membrane protein — the photosynthetic reaction center from R. viridis. Left: A cartoon representation. The cytochrome subunit C is shown in yellow, the transmembrane subunits L and M in orange and blue respectively, and the cytoplasmic H subunit (with a single transmembrane helix) in red. The electron-conducting ligands are indicated by semitransparent spheres with heme groups in the C subunit in red, bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins in green, and quinones in magenta (PDB: 1PRC). There is a pseudosymmetry between the L and M subunits relating also the ligands starting from the “special pair” of chlorophylls at the center and dividing into two branches. Middle: The photosynthetic reaction center Membrane Proteins 357 FIGURE 10.19 The special pair of the L-chain His168Phe mutant of the photosynthetic reaction center from R. viridis displays a significant blue-shift and increased initial electron transfer rate. His168 (position indicated by Phe168 in white stick) interacts with the special pair (green sticks with Mg2+ ions as cyan spheres). The Phe side chain will provide poor stabilization of the polarized special pair (PDB: 1XDR). photo-excited electrons to the reduction of water to free oxygen while generating proton gradients. Insight has been obtained on how the optimum wavelength for photoabsorption at the special pair is tuned (Fig. 10.19). By mutagenesis of the R. viridis photosynthetic reaction center on the L-chain His168 position to Phe, a significant blue-shift and increase in the initial electron transfer rate were observed. The Phtosynthetic electron transfer in plants k of Structuralmore complex: Getting Biology photosystem I Photosystem I 0.18 Structure of photosystem 1 as seen from the thylakoid lumen onto the me d from the side in the plane of the thylakoid membrane (bottom). This is only a m The mitochondrion Complex electron transport chains ...
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