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; HST (
2 MB - 21 ). T ( - ). O
360, 427). T LSB G
. 1987 AJ 94,23; I - (LSB) , B .Z .C
. 1990 A J
.I 1989 A J 341, 89; B " " , ,
Z T LSB .O
M B- G 1,
B .T V C .T ,
, . .a . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml 2/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce A , Q SO (
). T (3C 48, 3C 273), Z .T
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). T E - V ,
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, ( ). Tho gh e pe ime n : In o nigh k ( i h k glo and looking no fain e han, a , 19 h i al
magni de ) a a e m ch mo e p omine n han gala ie . Wh i hi , and ha o ld e ha e o
change o e e e he i a ion?
P .a , ESO, UK S . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml .S UGC, MCG, - - ESO/U
3/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce ( 107 ).T
D S , IR
, S S (SDSS). O - .T ( , S, , - IR
K2MASS , .T - IR
, . I
( , , ) .
Ba ic Obje c Ca alog
G : NGC = Ne General Cat alog. I
1880 . T
Re ised Ne General Cat alog of Nonst ellar Ast ronomical Obj ect s, S
). ( E
IC = I C
NGC 3C = T , ,
IC C B G .T .A 1973. NGC 2000 . C
S 7000+ , ,D , A 178 MH . O
1985 PASP 97, 932. ( CDS ) : R C B G , G. A.
.A V G , U. T (RC2), ,A
RC2 1964. I
S R C
.T B ,
B G ,
.a . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml V
NGC , V , V ., S ,
1991. B , U. , RC
.O U .T
, grep .A .
4/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce Revised Shapley- Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RSA), A. Sandage and G. Tammann, Carnegie Inst. of
Washington 1981. Complete data for 1300 galaxies brighter than B=13.2, with a selection of photographs
illustrating Sandage's version of the Hubble system. CDS files
Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies (UGC), P. Nilsson, 1973, Uppsala Obs. Publ. 12942 galaxies larger
than 1 arcminute in diameter from a full examination of the Palomar Sky Survey. Covers the sky north of - 2.5 .
ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas, Lauberts 1982 , ESO Garching. Galaxies, nebulae, and star
clusters south of - 17 , from examination of the ESO Quick Blue Survey. Classifications compatible with the
UGC. Lauberts and Valentijn (ESO, 1989) did densitometry of the plates for these galaxies, producing an
extensive photometric catalog including shape and orientation parameters. Digital version
Morphological Catalog of Galaxies (Morfologicheskii Katalog Galaktik, lacking a good Cyrillic font),
Vorontsov- Velyaminov and coworkers, 4 vol., Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow. Objects north
of - 33 from PSS. Uses VV's own system of classification, sometimes wonderfully descriptive but not easy to
mesh with standard Hubble types. Strictly keyed to PSS fields - no running numbers, so a typical name is MCG
(leading minus signs are significant; for example, MCG +5- 03- 013 and MCG - 5- 03- 013 are both Seyfert
galaxies, a wonderful chance for total confusion). The VV designations have never been very popular with
Western astronomers, in part because the morphological designations could hardly have been designed to be less
friendly for ASCII coding and searching, and because the lack of a single running designation similarly made
them unnecessarily difficult for early digital work. A fifth volume of the MCG covers southern galaxies to
declination - 58 from the PSS red- light extension, changing the magnitude scale. The online version does not
include the original set of nontypographical symbols used for some of the classifications, and splits Volume 5 as
Catalog of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, Zwicky and coworkers. Yet another examination of the PSS,
with emphasis on groups and clusters. These are the blue books, in six volumes. The CDS version includes data
on individual galaxies.
Catalog of Selected Compact Galaxies and of Post- Eruptive Galaxies, Zwicky 1971, Speich, Zürich. The red
book; a real zoo of normal galaxies, interacting systems, Seyferts, compact dwarfs,... The introduction is
amusing, and might be considered libellous today. Watch especially for "scatter- brained", "appalling naivety of
the theoreticians", "high pope of American Astronomy", and "autistic interpretations". This is finally available in
Picture s of gala ie s :
Hubble Atlas of Galaxies, Sandage 1961, Carnegie Inst. of Washington. Basic reference for the Hubble
Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, Arp 1966, Caltech, Pasadena (also in reduced size in ApJSuppl 14,1). Picked for
bizarre appearance - interacting systems, plumes, dust lanes, twisted arms. Very deep Palomar photographs.
Scanned images of high quality are available from NED. The photographic plates for the Atlas and the care of
their preparation for publication represented a high point in the photography of galaxies.
Atlas and Catalog of Interacting Galaxies (Atlas i katalog vzaimodeistvuyuschikh galaktik), VorontsovVelyaminov, Shternberg Institute (1959, part 1) and A& A Suppl 28,1 (1977, part 2). 355 and 500 systems,
respectively, identified by sequential VV numbers. More extensive than the Arp atlas, illustrated from the PSS,
includes many probably non- interacting systems such as clumpy irregular galaxies. Very idiosyncratic
arrangement and interpretation. Once again, NED level 5 provides a scanned version
A Catalog of Selected Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations, Arp and Madore, Cambridge 1987 (2
vol.). From a complete search of the SERC(J) plates, with accurate positions. Vol. 2 contains nice photos from
.a . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml 5/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce S
496 (1988). T
90,2006. D .T
be G A S S V
S A D
.M ,S S ,B
1967, O . A S
G ,F 1982, S C B .G ,S B , NASA SP- B 1985 AJ 90,1992;
1984 AJ 89, 919,
1985 AJ 90, 395.
. , .
,M.W P , A. S S , L C P ,D
. 8250 G ,L , .
(1168 B ,C
Re d hif : O 1983, A JS
52, 89. F
, Inde of Gala Spect ra, 1979 P
,C 2007. , 2401 Z . 2004 , , Cat alog of Radial Velocit ies of Gala ies, 1983, G
AAT 2 F ). T CA T -N , W : NSSDC ( , I -A , M
- S (1994, C .T - H
G J. B
A V B G D 1.5SS )
. Ac i e Galac ic N cle i:
Handbook of Quasist ellar and BL Lacert ae Obj ect s, E.R. C
A Rev ised and Updat ed Cat alog of Quasi-St ellar Obj ect s, H
90 BL L
Opt ical Cat alog of Radio Gala ies, B
40, 583. S
?), 2006. A (
85221 QSO , 21737
1122 BL L
.a . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml ,
87, 451. .( 6/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce he And omeda Gala i a Se fe 2? QSO a e no being iden ified a a h ge a e, e peciall f om follo p of
he FIRST adio
e and ROSAT all- k
e in of X- a , pl ne op ical m l icolo o k ch a he
Hamb g effo . Ea lie ca alog do no appea o ha e been a comple e a e ho gh .
Ca alog e of Se fe Gala ie and Rela ed Objec , Kaneko 1986, Hokkaido Uni ., Sappo o. 560 objec ;
imila l loo e defini ion of " ela ed".
A Ca alog e of Se fe Gala ie , Lipo e kii, Nei e nii, and Nei e na a, P bl. Special A oph . Ob .
(USSR) ol. 55, 1987. Incl de 959 objec , i h emi ion- line, IR, and adio fl e , pl mo phological da a
on ho gala ie .
An Op ical Ca alog e of E agalac ic Emi ion- Line Objec Simila o Q a i- S ella Objec , He i and
B bidge ApJS ppl 75, 297 (1991). Con o ed a of a ing Se fe gala ie . 935 en ie .
Handbook of Radio So ce , pa 1, Pacholc k 1978, Pacha , T c on. Selec ed e agalac ic adio
o ce f om 0- 12 ho , i h map , fl e , and efe ence . Thi a p e- VLA; ill ai ing fo pa 2.
Paloma - G een B igh Q a a S e : Schmid and G een 1983, ApJ 269, 352 and G een, Schmid , and
Liebe 1986 ApJS ppl 61, 305. A comple e ea ch fo UV- e ce objec b igh e han B=16 in he no he n
k , i h comple e confi ming pec o cop . The e objec ha e e e en i e f he o k (UV, X- a , adio,
a iabili , line p ofile ) beca e i i he la ge ample of b igh AGN.
Ma ka ian UV- e ce gala ie a e impo an , ince he con ain a la ge f ac ion of Se fe 1 objec and ac i el
a - fo ming
em . The e e e 15 p bli hed li f om he o iginal B akan objec i e- p i m
e , all
collec ed b Ma ka ian, Lipo e kii, S epanian, E a o a, and Shapo alo a, P bl. Special A oph . Ob .
(USSR), ol. 62, 1989. I ha e a local cop of hei da a able aken f om a di ke e p o ided b Lipo e kii.
C o - co ela ion i h addi ional ca alog (no abl he IRAS
e ) a done b Ma a ella and Bal ano
1986, ApJS ppl 62, 751.
Addi ional e fo UV- e ce and emi ion- line gala ie ha e been done b e e al g o p : Ka a ian 1979- 1982, in A ofi ika 15,5; 15, 193; 16,17 and 18, 512. High- face- b igh ne gala ie
ba ed on ca alog pho ome and i e .
A akelian high- face- b igh ne gala ie , Soob ch. B akan Ob . 47,3 (1975). High- face- b igh ne
gala ie ba ed on ca alog pho ome and i e , incl de ome p ominen Se fe .
Ki o UV- e ce li : Nog chi, Maeha a, and Kondo, Ann. Tok o A oph . Ob . e II 18, 53; Kondo,
Nog chi, and Maeha a, idem. 20, 130; Taka e, Nog chi, and Maeha a 1982, idem. 19, 440.
Michigan- Tololo emi ion- line
e : ApJS ppl 34, 95 (1977); 35, 197(1977); 35, 203 (1977); 36, 587
(1978); 45, 113 (1981).
KPNO In e na ional Spec o copic S e (KISS): Sal e e al. 2000, AJ 120, 80 and la e li .
Mad id emi ion- line
e : Zamo ano e al. 1994 ApJS 95, 387; 1996 ApJS 105, 343; Alon o e al. 1999
ApJS 122, 415
Radio and X- a
e : he e a e b no o e en i e ha he a e mo en ibl app oached digi all , f om
(fo e ample) he FIRST, NVSS, and HEASARC WWW i e . The nea - IR 2MASS
e co e ed he en i e
k a a le el de ec ing en of ho and of gala ie f om 1.2- 2.2 mic on , ho gh he face- b igh ne le el i
no g ea fo gala
c e . Looking a pecific a eleng h ange :
Radio con in m
n mbe of mall field
ha e been ca ied o
.a e f om abo 6- 90 cm a e in e cellen hape, f om he 3C and Pa ke
e pl a
e ed e deepl . T o diffe en
e a 20 cm ( he NVSS and FIRST p ojec )
i h he VLA, co e ing mo of he acce ible k o fl limi picall a fe mJ fo . a.ed /keel/gala ie /ca alog .h ml 7/8 1/15/12 Gala ie and he Uni e e - Ca alog and Da a So ce point sources. A radio galaxy such as M87 could be found anywhere within =10 by current techniques. These
wavelengths are domanated by nonthermal processes such as synchrotron radiation.
The far- infrared survey by the Inf rared Ast ronomical Sat ellit e (IRAS) produced measurements from 12- 100
for over 250,000 galaxies, seen via thermal dust emission. This is a treasure trove for seekers both of the
systematic and the exotic. At longer wavelengths, the ESA Inf rared Space Observ at or (ISO) mission
provided dramatically improved sensitivity and somewhat better spatial resolution for individual targets, in turn
extended dramatically by the detectors on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The near- infrared bands are sensitive to
the cooler giant populations, and at longer wavelengths we see mainly interstellar dust heated by the assorted
stellar components; at large redshifts all these contributions naturally slide to longer wavelengths. The IRAS
survey has been repeated with much better resolution and sensitivity by the Ak ari mission.
Note that the millimeter and submillimeter observations sample the long- wavelength tail of the thermal dust
emission normally seen in the far- infrared.
Radio line work is more difficult because of extra requirements of angular resolution and the additional
dimension of frequency space - that is, such observations must generally be targeted at some known galaxy, from
optical or IR surveys. Hundreds (CO) or thousands (H I) of galaxies have been observed well enough to
measure a total line flux and velocity profile. A few large- solid- angle surveys in H I have been conducted,
looking for optically obscured galaxies behind the Milky Way. The problem here is that existing receivers can
take in only a fairly narrow redshift range in a single observation. Submillimeter receivers are now being deployed
which can take in a wide redshift range at once using CO lines.
X- ray surveys took a huge leap with ROSAT. These energies sample AGN, hot thermalized gas, and the Xray binary population tying to the recent star- forming history.
UV surveys remained primitive until the start of the GALEX mission. A few galaxies were been photographed
from sounding rockets, the Large Magellanic Cloud was imaged from the lunar surface by Apollo 16, and a few
dozen galaxies were observed by the Astro missions. O'Connell has summarized a number of advantages to UV
surveys, largely accruing from the very low scattered- light background around 2500 Angstroms and the
sensitivity of UV data to (unreddened) hot stellar populations. HST parallel observations are slowly providing
deep, high- resolution survey data over small areas of the sky.
Ele ctronic archi e s and re trie al
The biggest news in data collections throughout astronomy has been, of course, network resources. For galaxies,
the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED) maintained at IPAC has ways of searching for basic data and
literature references by position or catalog designation (and even for objects close to a known one). Somewhat
different searches (for example, by availability of 2D or 3D kinematic information) are available using HyperCat
at (a descendant of LEDA, the Lyon Extragalactic Database). To deal with whole catalogs at once, you can
retrieve them from the CDS in Strasbourg. Some of the most popular ones are also to be found on the ADC
CD- ROMs. The HEASARC "browse" interface includes powerful catalog search- and- plot routines.
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