Kant - Perpetual Peace

Kant - Perpetual Peace - For Class on 9/21/2010 PERPETUAL...

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For Class on 9/21/2010 “PERPETUAL PEACE” –IMMANUEL KANT First Section: Which Contains the Preliminary Articles of a Perpetual Peace Between States 1. No conclusion of peace shall be considered valid as such if it was made with a secret reservation of the material for a future war. 2. No independently existing state, whether it be large or small, may be acquired by another state by inheritance, exchange, purchase or gift. a. A state is a society of men, and to treat it otherwise would terminate its existence as a moral personality, which contradicts the idea of the original contract, without which the rights of a people are unthinkable. 3. Standing armies (miles perpetuus) will gradually be abolished altogether. a. This is because they constantly threaten other states with war by the very fact that they are always prepared for it. b. Three powers of a state: the power of the army, the power of alliance, and the power of money. The third is probably the most reliable instrument of war and would lead more often to wars if it were not so difficult to discover the amount of wealth which another state possesses. 4. No national debt shall be contracted in connection with the external affairs of the state. 5. No state shall forcibly interfere in the constitution and government of another state. a. Nothing could justify such interference. 6. No state at war with another shall permit such acts of hostility as would make mutual confidence impossible during a future time of peace. Such acts would include the employment of assassins (percussores) or poisoners (venefici), breach of agreements, the instigation of treason (perduellio) within the enemy state, etc. Second Section: Which Contains the Definitive Articles of a Perpetual Peace Between States - A state of peace among men living together is not the same as the state of nature, which is rather a state of war. The state of peace must be formally instituted, for a suspension of hostilities is not in itself a guarantee of peace. - First Definitive Article of a Perpetual Peace: The Civil Constitution of Every State shall be Republican - A republican constitution is founded upon three principles: (1) the principle of freedom for all members of a society (as men); (2) the principle of the dependence of everyone upon a single
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This note was uploaded on 01/15/2012 for the course POLSCI 495 taught by Professor Rensmann during the Fall '10 term at University of Michigan.

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Kant - Perpetual Peace - For Class on 9/21/2010 PERPETUAL...

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