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Services - Services   Application component   No...

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Unformatted text preview: Services   Application component   No user interface   Two main uses   Performing background processing   Supporting remote method execution   A Service can be activated by a client component via   Context.startService(Intent intent)   The started Service runs in the background   Services often designed to perform a single operation & then terminate themselves   Started Services do not return results   Note: Services do not run in their own threads   Client components can bind to a Service when they want to interact with it   Context.bindService (Intent service, ServiceConnection conn, int flags)   Service will be started if necessary   Service remains active as long as at least one client is bound to it   Logging Service   Client Activity sends log messages to service   Service writes messages to a log console   Music playing Service   Client Activity tells service to play a music file   Services plays music in the background (even if Client Activity pauses or terminates)   ID Service   Client Activity requests system ­wide unique ID   Service returns ID to Client   Service requests represented as Intents   Uses a Service subclass called IntentService   IntentService requests handled sequentially in a single worker thread   IntentService started and stopped as needed public class BGLoggingDemo extends Activity { public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { … buttonStart.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { Intent intent = new Intent(BGLoggingDemo.this, BGLoggingService.class); intent.putExtra("course.examples.Services.Logging", "Log this message"); startService(intent); } }); } } public class BGLoggingService extends IntentService { … public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) { super.onStartCommand(intent, flags, startId); return START_NOT_STICKY; } protected void onHandleIntent(Intent intent) { // create and start new Thread to handle request … Log.i(TAG,arg.getCharSequenceExtra ("course.examples.Services.Logging").toString()); } ... } <application … > <activity android:name=".BGLoggingDemo" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent ­filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent ­filter> </activity> <service android:enabled="true" android:name=".BGLoggingService" /> </application>   The LoggingService is a simplified example   It doesn’t need to be implemented as a Service ▪  You could simply do the logging in a new Thread   Use Services when you want to run a component even when a user is not interacting with the Service’s hosting application   Client Activity can start/stop playing music via a Service   If music is playing when client leaves the foreground, music service will continue playing public class MusicService extends Service { MediaPlayer player; … public void onCreate() { player = MediaPlayer.create(this, R.raw.braincandy); player.setLooping(false); } public int onStartCommand (Intent intent, int flags, int startid) { player.start(); return START_NOT_STICKY; } … } public class MusicServiceDemo extends Activity { public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { … button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View src) { … startService( new Intent(MusicServiceDemo.this,MusicService.class)); } }); } }   Client uses a Service hosted in another application   Client needs an ID from service   Requires inter ­process communication (IPC) Define remote interface in the Android Interface Definition Language (AIDL) Implement remote interface           Stub & application ­specific methods Implement Service methods Implement Client methods   Declare interface in a .aidl file package course.examples.Services.KeyCommon; interface KeyGenerator { String getKey(); }   Similar to Java interface definition syntax   Can declare methods   Cannot declare static fields   Remote method parameters can be labeled   in: (default) transferred to the remote method   out: returned to the caller   inout: both in and out     Java primitive types StringList   List elements must be valid AIDL data types   Generic lists supported   Map ▪  Map elements must be valid AIDL data types ▪  Generic maps not supported       CharSequence Other AIDL ­generated interfaces Classes implementing the Parcelable protocol   Generate a Java interface with same name as .aidl file   Eclipse does this automatically   Generated interface contains:   Abstract inner class called Stub   Interface & helper methods public class KeyGeneratorImpl extends Service { … private final KeyGenerator.Stub binder = new KeyGenerator.Stub() { public String getKey() { // generate unique ID in a thread ­safe manner & return it } }; … … public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) { return this.binder; } } public class KeyUser extends Activity { private KeyGenerator service; // handle to Remote Service private boolean bound; // Remote Service callback methods private ServiceConnection connection = new ServiceConnection() { public void onServiceConnected( ComponentName className, IBinder iservice) { service = KeyGenerator.Stub.asInterface(iservice); bound = true; } … public void onServiceDisconnected( ComponentName className) { service = null; bound = false; } }; … protected void onStart() { super.onStart(); Intent intent = new Intent(KeyGenerator.class.getName()); // bind to Service bindService(intent,this.connection, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE); } protected void onStop() { // unbind from Service if (bound) unbindService(this.connection); super.onStop(); } } … public void onCreate(Bundle icicle) { … goButton.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { try { // call remote method output.setText(service.getKey()); } catch (RemoteException e) {} } }); … } <manifest … package="course.examples.Services.KeyClient"> <application …"> <activity android:name=".KeyUser" …> <intent ­filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name= "android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent ­filter> </activity> </application> </manifest> <manifest …package="course.examples.Services.KeyService"> <application …"> <service android:name=".KeyGeneratorImpl" android:exported="true"> <intent ­filter> <action android:name= "course.examples.Services.KeyCommon.KeyGenerator"/> </intent ­filter> </service> </application> </manifest>   LoggingServiceExample   MusicPlayingServiceExample   ServiceWithIPCExampleClient   ServiceWithIPCExampleService ...
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