bateman.Chap013.2 - Motivating for Performance Performance...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivating for Performance Performance Question of the Day Question Per (March 2011), US job satisfaction is at the lowest level in two decades. While one in 10 Americans is now unemployed, their working colleagues of all ages and incomes are increasingly unhappy and unmotivated; with those under 25 the most dissatisfied. This results in increased turnover and lower productivity. Why is there increasing dissatisfaction? What can employers do to reverse the trend? The worst mistake a boss can make is not to say well done. say John Ashcroft, Business Executive 13-3 The Concept of Motivation Motivation • forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts addresses three perspectives on motivation taken by researchers internal (push) forces external (pull) forces characteristics of the work situation • motivation is a psychological construct must be inferred from behavior highly motivated people, with adequate ability and understanding of the job, will be highly productive The Concept of Motivation The Simple model of motivation NEED-Creates desire to fulfill needs (food, friendship, recognition, achievement). BEHAVIORResults in actions to fulfill needs. REWARDSSatisfy needs; intrinsic or extrinsic rewards. FEEDBACK-Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again. Intrinsic reward satisfaction received in the process of performing an action Extrinsic reward reward given by another person Setting Goals Setting Goal­setting theory • A motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end • S.M.A.R.T Goals Goal setting works for any job in which people have control over their performance EXERCISE: Smart Goals? Smart Reword to make SMART Increase sales next year. Reduce quality errors from current 10% Meet all client expectations within 24 hours starting January 1st. Setting Goals Setting Stretch goals • Targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible Vertical stretch goals • Stretch goals aligned with current activity including productivity and financial results • Horizontal stretch goals involving people’s professional development Reinforcing Performance Reinforcing Law of effect • Behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be repeated Reinforcers • Positive consequences that motivate behavior Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) • The application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings Reinforcing Performance Reinforcing Four key consequences of behavior that either encourage or discourage people’s behavior • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction Question Question ___________ is the withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence. A.Positive reinforcement B.Negative reinforcement C.Punishment D.Extinction 13­11 The Consequences of Behavior Behavior Reinforcing Performance Reinforcing Managing mistakes • • • • Overuse of punishment creates a climate of fear Recognize that everyone makes mistakes Praise people who deliver bad news to their bosses Do not punish unsuccessful but good­faith efforts Providing feedback • Consider all potential causes of poor performance • Pay full attention when employees ask for feedback The Greatest Management The Principle in the World 13­14 Table 13.1 Performance-Related Beliefs Performance-Related Reinforcement theory considers the work environment­­expectancy theory considers cognitive processes Expectancy theory • A theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome • Includes Effort­to­performance links (expectancy) Performance­to­outcome links (outcome, The Performance-to-Outcome Link Link Instrumentality • The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome. 13­16 Valence • The value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it. Question Question ___________ is the value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it. A.Expectancy B.Valence C.Instrumentality D.Anticipation 13­17 Basic Concepts of Expectancy Theory Theory Expectancy Theory’s Impact on Motivation Motivation For motivation to be high, expectancy, instrumentalities, and total valence of all outcomes must all be high Employees will not be motivated if: • They believe they cannot perform well enough to achieve the positive outcomes (high valence, high instrumentality, low expectancy) • They know they can do the job don’t want those outcomes or believe negative outcomes outweigh the positive (high expectancy, high instrumentality, low valence) • They believe they can do the job but does not believe the outcomes will be forthcoming (high expectancy and positive valences, low instrumentality) Understanding People’s Needs Understanding Maslow’s Need Hierarchy • A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types Alderfer’s ERG Theory • A human needs theory developed by Alderfer postulating that people have three basic sets of need which can operate simultaneously McClelland’s Needs • Needs for achievement, affiliation, and power Need theories: International perspectives • Culture influences the emphasis on various needs Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Maslow’s Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer’s Existence needs • All material and physiological desires Relatedness needs • Involves relationships with other people and are satisfied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings Growth needs • Motivate people to productively or creatively change themselves or their environment Maslow’s Need Hierarchy vs. ERG Theory Self-actualization plus part of ego needs derived from intrinsic valuing of the self Ac Self tua liza tio n Ego Soc ia Phy si Saf ety olo gic al Ma sl o w l Social needs plus trust part of safety needs, part of ego needs derived from others’ appraisals wth Gro R ess edn elat nc e e xist E fer r lde A Physiological plus material part of safety needs McClelland’s Needs McClelland’s Need for achievement • Characterized by a strong orientation toward accomplishment and an obsession with success and goal attainment Need for affiliation • Reflects a strong desire to be liked by other people Need for power • A desire to influence or control other people • Can be a negative force­­personalized power­­if expressed through manipulation and exploitation • Can be a positive motive­­socialized power­­if channeled toward constructive improvement of organizations or societies Designing Motivating Jobs Designing Herzberg’s two­factor theory • Describes two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction Hygeine factors are characteristics of the workplace Motivators are factors that make a job more motivating such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement Hackman and Oldham: job design • Well­designed jobs lead to high motivation, high­ quality performance, high satisfaction, and low absenteeism and performance Content Perspectives on Motivation Content Traditional model of job satisfaction any job characteristic (e.g., supervision or work itself) Dissatisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Satisfied Herzberg’s two-factor theory Herzberg’s hygienes – elements associated with job conditions social or physical context of the job Dissatisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied motivators – factors directly related to doing a job content of the job Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Satisfied Hackman and Oldham Model of Job Design of Designing Motivating Jobs Designing Growth need strength • The degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development Empowerment • The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization Achieving Fairness Achieving Equity theory • A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs Assessing equity • People compare: Outcomes versus others Outcomes Inputs Their own Inputs Equity Theory (cont.) Person My rewards (outcomes) My contributions (inputs) My rewards (outcomes) My contributions (inputs) Comparison Other = < Other’s rewards Other’s contributions Other’s rewards Other’s contributions Actions to Restore Equity – Person could: ask for a raise (i.e., increase her/his outcomes) work less hard (i.e., reduce her/his inputs ) distort perceptions of Comparison Other’s inputs choose a different Comparison Other Equity Inequit y (underreward) Achieving Fairness Achieving Restoring equity • People who feel inequitably treated can Reduce their inputs Increase their outcomes Decrease others’ outcomes Procedural justice • Using fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible Job Satisfaction Job Quality of work life (QWL) programs • Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well being • QWL has eight categories Psychological contract • A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers and what their employers owe them QWL Programs QWL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Adequate and fair compensation A safe and healthy environment Jobs that develop human capacities A chance for personal growth and security A social environment that fosters personal identity, freedom from prejudice, a sense of community, and upward mobility Constitutionalism, or the rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process A work role that minimized infringement on personal leisure and family needs Socially responsible organizational actions ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course 620 300 taught by Professor Gordon during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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