Review Guide - Microbiology

Review Guide - Microbiology - Review Questions - (Bacteria,...

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Ignore page # references 1. Describe the principal body forms of monerans (inside and outside). Cell Sizes and Shapes: Typically, the length or width of bacteria falls between 1 and 10 micrometers. Three basic shapes are common: a. coccus—spherical (streptococci when in chains, staphylococci in sheets), b. bacillus (rod)—cylindrical, c. spiral—helical. Structural Features They are prokaryotes—no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. a. Metabolic reactions take place in the cytoplasm or at the plasma membrane. b. Proteins are assembled on floating ribosomes. Nearly all bacteria have a cell wall, usually containing a tough mesh of peptidoglycan, peptides cross-linked with polysaccharides. Exterior to the cell wall is the glycocalyx, a jellylike capsule that helps bacterial cells attach to a substrate or deter the host's infection-fighting cells. Two kinds of filamentous structures may be attached to the cell wall: The bacterial flagellum rotates like a propeller to pull the cell along. Pili help bacteria attach to one another in conjugation, or help them attach to surfaces. 2. Distinguish chemoautotrophs from photoautotrophs. Chemoautotrophic bacteria utilize carbon dioxide and produce organic compounds using the energy in simple inorganic substances such as nitrates and hydrogen sulfide. . A photoautotrophic bacterium uses sunlight as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source to make glucose etc. 1
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Review Guide - Microbiology - Review Questions - (Bacteria,...

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