Study Guide Questions - Microbiology

Study Guide Questions - Microbiology - Unit IV Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit IV Study Guide Questions Unit IV Study Guide Questions Microbiology • Study the review questions found in Word file, Review Questions Microbiology (KEY) Question 1 Question 1 1. Define health. • Health ­ A state of complete physical, mental, and social well­being. Question 2 Question 2 2. Define disease. • Disease ­ A deleterious change in the body’s condition in response to an environmental factor. Question 3 Question 3 3. What are three disease factors? Diet and nutrition, infectious agents, toxic chemicals, physical factors, and psychological stress all contribute to disease. Question 4 Question 4 • Define emergent disease and give two examples. • An emergent disease is one never known before, or has been absent for at least 20 years. • Foot and Mouth Disease • Ebola Question 5 Question 5 • Give two examples of ecological diseases. – Distemper (Seals) – Chronic Wasting Disease (Deer and Elk) • Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies – Black Band Disease (Coral) Question 6 Question 6 • 6. What are some symptoms of the “sick building” syndrome? – Headaches, allergies, and chronic fatigue caused by poorly ventilated indoor air contaminated by molds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other toxic chemicals. Question 7 Question 7 • 7. Define antagonistic reaction (chemical). • Antagonistic Reaction ­ One material interferes with the effects, or stimulates the breakdown, of other chemicals. (Aluminum ions remove phosphate ions from solution) Question 8 Question 8 • 8. Define: LD50. – LD50 ­ Dose at which 50% of the test population is sensitive (dies). Question 9 Question 9 • 9. What is the EPA’s definition of “acceptable risk”? • EPA generally assumes 1 in 1 million is acceptable risk for environmental hazards. Question 10 Question 10 10. Contrast acute vs. chronic effects. • Acute Effects ­ Caused by a single exposure and result in an immediate health problem. • Chronic Effects ­ Long­lasting. Can be result of single large dose or repeated smaller doses. Question 1 Question 1 • 1. Prokaryotic refers to the lack of a ____ ______? Answer 1 Answer 1 • 1. Prokaryotic refers to the lack of a nuclear membrane or nucleus. Question 2 Question 2 • 2. ______ are infectious agents or particles, but not “true organisms”. Answer 2 Answer 2 • 2. Viruses are infectious agents or particles, but not “true organisms”. Question 3 Question 3 • 3. _____ are used for bacterial locomotion and ______ are employed for cell to cell attachment. Answer 3 Answer 3 • 3. Flagella are used for bacterial locomotion and pili are employed for cell to cell attachment. Question 4 Question 4 • 4. Identify this cell shape. Answer 4 Answer 4 • 4. Identify this cell shape. • Coccus (spherical) Question 5 Question 5 • 5. Identify this cell shape. Answer 5 Answer 5 • 5. Identify this cell shape. • Bacillus (rod shaped) Question 6 Question 6 • 6. Identify this cell type. Answer 6 Answer 6 • 6. Identify this cell type. spirillum Question 7 Question 7 • 7. Name two major types of archaebacteria (there are 3 types). Answer 7 Answer 7 • 7. Name two major types of archaebacteria (there are 3 types). • Extreme thermophiles, methanogens, and extreme halophiles (any two) Question 8 Question 8 • 8. Describe a typical bacterial “chromosome”. Answer 8 Answer 8 • 8. Describe a typical bacterial “chromosome”. • It is composed of a single circular DNA molecule. Question 9 Question 9 • 9. What are plasmids? Answer9 Answer 9 • 9. What are plasmids? • Plasmids are very small circular bits of DNA which can be transferred from one cell to another via conjugation. Question 10 Question 10 • 10. The “normal” human flora consists of about _____ species of bacteria. Answer 10 Answer 10 • 10. The “normal” human flora consists of about 200 species of bacteria. Question 11 Question 11 • 11. E. coli normally lives in the ______ of vertebrates and is beneficial/harmful. Answer 11 Answer 11 • 11. E. coli normally lives in the intestines of vertebrates and is beneficial/harmful. Question 12 Question 12 • 12. Streptococcus pyogenes strains (as well as others) rarely cause “______ _______”. Answer 12 Answer 12 • 12. Streptococcus pyogenes strains (as well as others) rarely cause “necrotizing fasciitis”. Question 13 Question 13 • 13. E. coli strain O157:H7, a dangerous form, was associated with ____ __ __ ____ hamburgers as well as the ____ _____ incident in Cobb county, GA. Answer 13 Answer 13 • 13. E. coli strain O157:H7, a dangerous form, was associated with Jack in the Box hamburgers as well as the White Water incident in Cobb county, GA. Question 14 Question 14 • 14. Viruses are composed of an outer ______ coat with an interior core of ________ _______. Answer 14 Answer 14 • 14. Viruses are composed of an outer protein coat with an interior core of nucleic acid. Question 15 Question 15 • 15. HIV is a(n) _______ virus. Answer 15 Answer 15 • 15. HIV is a(n) enveloped (or RNA) virus. Question 16 Question 16 • 16. Identify this type of virus. Answer 16 Answer 16 • 16. Identify this type of virus. helical Answer 17 Answer 17 • 17. Identify this type of virus. complex Question 18 Question 18 • 18. Name the two modes of viral replication. Answer 18 Answer 18 • 18. Name the two modes of viral replication. Lytic and lysogenic Question 19 Question 19 • 19. Of the two modes which one may have a long “latent” (resting) period? Question 19 Question 19 • 19. Of the two modes which one may have a long “latent” (resting) period? Answer 19 Answer 19 • 19. Of the two modes which one may have a long “latent” (resting) period? • lysogenic Question 20 Question 20 • 20. Hepatitis A infects which organ? Answer 20 Answer 20 • 20. Hepatitis A infects which organ? • liver Question 21 Question 21 • 21. Which water born virus may attack and kill motor neurons (nerves)? Answer 21 Answer 21 • 21. Which water born virus may attack and kill motor neurons (nerves)? • polio Question 22 Question 22 • 22. Viroids are “naked” strands or circles of ______. Answer 22 Answer 22 • 22. Viroids are “naked” strands or circles of RNA. Question 23 Question 23 • 23. Viroids are known to only infect _______. Answer 23 Answer 23 • 23. Viroids are known to only infect plants. Question 24 Question 24 • 24. Prions are composed exclusively of ________. Answer 24 Answer 24 • 24. Prions are composed exclusively of proteins. Question 25 Question 25 • 25. ____ ____ _____ is a disease that is caused by a prion. It is found in farm animals and there is a human form. Answer 25 Answer 25 • 25. Mad cow disease is a disease that is caused by a prion. It is found in farm animals and there is a human form. Question 26 Question 26 • 26. Protistans differ from prokaryotes. • State two differences: Answer 26 Answer 26 • • • 26. Protistans differ from prokaryotes. State two differences: Protistans have: a membrance bound nucleus; organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts; microtubules; mitosis and meiosis • Prokaryotes lack these structures. Question 27 Question 27 • 27. Animal­like protistans are informally known as: Answer 27 Answer 27 • 27. Animal­like protistans are informally known as: • Protozoa Question 28 Question 28 • 28. Which of the following is (are) mismatched? • Sarcodina – amoeboid protozoans • Ciliophora – parasitic heterotrophs such as sporazoans • Mastigophora – animal­like flagellates Answer 28 Answer 28 • 28. Which of the following is (are) mismatched? • Sarcodina – amoeboid protozoans • Ciliophora – parasitic heterotrophs such as sporazoans • Mastigophora – animal­like flagellates Question 29 Question 29 • 29. Amoeba move by means of cilia/pseudopods/flagella. (Choose one) Answer 29 Answer 29 • 29. Amoeba move by means of cilia/pseudopods/flagella. (Choose one) Question 30 Question 30 • 30. “Shelled” Amoebas have “houses” made from silica/calcium carbonate/ or some silica and others calcium carbonate. (choose one) Answer 30 Answer 30 • 30. “Shelled” Amoebas have “houses” made from silica/calcium carbonate/ or some silica and others calcium carbonate. (choose one) Question 31 Question 31 • 31. True/false. All amoebas are free­living; none are parasitic. (If false, give a counter example) Answer 31 Answer 31 • 31. True/false. All amoebas are free­living; none are parasitic. (If false, give a counter example) • False. Some freshwater types can invade the brain and cause death. Others are internal parasites. Question 32 Question 32 • 32. What is name for the phylum which contains ciliates such as Paramecium? Answer 32 Answer 32 • 32. What is name for the phylum which contains ciliates such as Paramecium? • Ciliophora Question 33 Question 33 • 33. Ciliates have two types of nuclei. Name them. Answer 33 Answer 33 • 33. Ciliates have two types of nuclei. Name them. • Macronuclei and micronuclei Question 34 Question 34 • 34. What is the name for the process where ciliates exchange micronuclei? Answer 34 Answer 34 • 34. What is the name for the process where ciliates exchange micronuclei? • conjugation Question 35 Question 35 • 35. Ciliates use cilia for both ______ and _______. Answer 35 Answer 35 • 35. Ciliates use cilia for both locomotion and feeding. Question 36 Question 36 • 36. Animal­like flagellates belong to the phylum ________. Answer 36 Answer 36 • 36. Animal­like flagellates belong to the phylum Mastigophora. Question 37 Question 37 • 37. Name two flagellates that may cause health or environmental problems. Answer 37 Answer 37 • 37. Name two flagellates that may cause health or environmental problems. • Trypanosomes, Trichamonas, and /or dinoflagellates (red tide organisms) Question 38 Question 38 • 38. All of these organisms are parasitic. There are many different species including the malarial organisms. _____ Answer 38 Answer 38 • 38. All of these organisms are parasitic. There are many different species including the malarial organisms. sporazoans Question 39 Question 39 • 39. Why should pregnant women avoid contact with cats? Answer 39 Answer 39 • 39. Why should pregnant women avoid contact with cats? Cats are vectors of the sporazoan, Toxaplasma. Infection of pregnant women can cause harm or even death to the fetus. Question 40 Question 40 • 40. Why should pregnant women avoid contact with cats? Answer 40 Answer 40 • 40. What is the vector of the malarial organism? Female mosquitoes Question 41 Question 41 • 41. To what phylum does Euglena and its relatives belong? Answer 41 Answer 41 • 41. To what phylum do Euglena and its relatives belong? • Euglenophyta Question 42 Question 42 • 42. What type of algae live in “glass houses” and are important primary producers? Answer 42 Answer 42 • 42. What type of algae live in “glass houses” and are important primary producers? • diatoms Question 43 Question 43 • 43. What major group (phyla) of algae most closely resemble green plants? Answer 43 Answer 43 • 43. What major group (phyla) of algae most closely resemble green plants? • Green algae (Chlorophyta) ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course IS 3020 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Kennesaw.

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