10 - Issues Related to Parental Transition

10 - Issues Related to Parental Transition - Unplanned...

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Unformatted text preview: Unplanned Parenthood Unplanned Parenthood 40% US births are unplanned 30% of conceptions end in abortion Decline in moral standards Lack of education Barriers to contraception Young Parenthood Young Parenthood Abortion: White teens > Black teens Adoption: White teens > Black teens Marriage: declining option for both groups Contraceptive use: 1/3 of sexually active teens Failure to anticipate sex Believe risk of pregnancy is low Young Parenthood cont. Young Parenthood cont. Intergenerational pattern Daughters of teen moms > risk for teen childbearing Cultural pattern US highest rates of teen pregnancy (even compared to Canada) Access to contraceptives Cost of family planning services Ethnic diversity and unequal income distribution Young Parenthood cont. Young Parenthood cont. Outcomes: Decreased education Early marriage (for some) Decreased income Decreased employment 90% teen moms live with husband or other relative Many in extended family households Unwed Parenthood Unwed Parenthood Unmarried ≠ single parenthood (includes cohabitation) Stigma is cultural Sweden: ‘illegitimacy’ not applicable US/Canada: stigma remains Consequences for fathers Decreased education Decreased earnings Increased poverty Decreased work hours/year Unable to provide support Unwed Birth Rates Unwed Birth Rates Repercussions to child Repercussions to child Do not begin life on equal footing compared with children from older/married unions Less academic ability Earlier sex Behavioral problems Childless Marriage Childless Marriage Predictors of Childlessness Predictors of Childlessness fecundity marital status age labor force participation education Types of Childlessness Types of Childlessness Voluntary Believe costs of children > satisfaction in having them Higher marital satisfaction than mothers Involuntary Infertility 15% (1 in 7 couples) Causes high stress Spillover into work, finances, social life Ability to CHOOSE significant factor in marital satisfaction Family Size and Achievement Family Size and Achievement One child families: Negative stereotype Higher well being than children with siblings Family Size and Achievement: Increasing numbers of children ­ negative effect on achievement; financial well­being dilution hypothesis ­ less achievement due to dilution of resources Rule ridden rather than individualized attention No relationship between siblings and sociability Birth Order Birth Order 1st born Last born Intellectual achiever; high self esteem Females religious, conservative, traditional Role model, more responsible, less attention Sexually permissive, social, less traditional Middle child Lowest self esteem No uniqueness 1 or 3 yr. spacing better than 2 ...
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