Competition & Warfare

Competition & Warfare - 1/15/12 Competition...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare COMPETITION & WARFARE Intro M , H : , - , , , , I ,I 1) 2) 3) 4) : & Definition and Prevalence M , : organi ed arm ed aggression between m em bers of politicall autonom ous social groups T , , " " ; & [N , " organi ed " -group , , ; ( ( ' , ), ( ) )] U , D ? - 87 [see graph] 61% 21% 18% : ( ( 1/ ( / 40% ) ) 8% (> ) ) Evolutionar Theor of Aggressive Contests O ( ) courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm , 1/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare T " " -- ( ) B T : ' ), " "( ' - , : - (M 18% 1970) G - ( ," Pan paniscus, " A 25% , Pan troglod tes, ) -- I ' , , , , regardless of its effect on average fitness in the population T , "H -D " ( , , - ) S : Ha k , Do e , , ( - ) ( ) : D D H ( H , , ' ) G , 100 " W ' " D , , = 50 " " I D , H courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm -D , H ( . ., ) 2/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare , 100 ; ( 100 ), H -- Y H D , , H ?I : H H , , , H ( H , ) S H l o i ng 300 ( = -100 ( . ., 100/2 - 300/2) .H T D ' ); H , , H H ) S , D , ? ( , ) ," ESS e al ( T " O (-100) :A H G ( ( ) H D ) , ; , -- : , B " D ESS " ESS, D ( I , a e age fi ne ( . = 50, )H ) ( -H ( ) ' ' , H : ESS), . 33 -D ; , .T , ( , B H O M - , .) ,I , D ; H ( D -- ESS) ESS :H ( 1/3 D ) 2/3 ;J S , B courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm - H -D 3/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare ( - ), "B B ESS ( "( H ,D ); B H D ,D , , -D H -H ) T , , , , , , ; , ESS, " ESS " Ecological Model of Compe i ion H -D , ' ( , , .) O F : Active dem and b 2 or m ore individuals or groups for a resource that is actuall or potentiall lim iting B lim iting, ( ) A ( ) , ) N2/ N1 ( ( , ) N ' form ; , A ; ), ( ( = 2) interference ( , courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm ( , T 1) scram ble ), B 1992 ): ; = ' , .) 4/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare C F , - , ), K ( . ., , c am bl e I , S K - , : 1. W ca e ed fl c a e , c am bl e 2. In e fe ence T concen a ed & 2 ( abl e K ) , = ( ) Al e na i e Ecological E plana ion of H man Wa fa e L' : 1. " U 2. P 3. L C C (1) "Unna al C o ding" e plana ion: T " / ( ) , I ( , E " " ") ; - , -- " A , , ( . ., H . e ec - , , courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm 5/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare N G ?) L : , , , T , " " ( A ( " - " . .) 1 R , 2 87: , , ), . . , not , ) [see Graph] ( - T , " " & (2) Population Control e planation: T , ( directl D , , , , ; F E D Y [N : = 5% G ) m ortalit & I M Societ (Location) (N G ) (N G ) D (N G ) (A ) , 0.2% U.S.A.; A courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm ( Pol g n common? Y Y Y Y ): Mortalit due to arfare: Adult male Adult female 14% <1% 25% <1% 29% 3% 30% 7% : 1960-1970 = 3%] V M H , WW II 6/11 1/15/12 Ha g I Competition & Warfare ec g i e h ae ha ead, Ha i a fa e dea h he ea ai g ec h e h a e ha e ig ifica e , i di ec i ei fe a e i fa icide ee ca ci ed ced eed ai g h, b ai di g e ea efe e ce f e ac c : ai a e ec i e ad a age aie ea e ei ) i ai a fa e a d eg a e age ai di g c ae " ( e he be ee g- e h age f e i age e fe a e i fa icide ( fie ce a i e a ded h feedbac agai ) e ie cie efe e ce f i i e feedbac g "fie ce ) e a fa e ( ii e Th Ha i ee a i e- a e cie ie a ada i e i ch ca e (i ee ig ai f e ceedi g ca i g ca aci ), b c ea i g a f "ec gica a " f hich i i ha d e ca e Ha i a d he ha e a ied hi a g e a ge a a e-bia ed e a i ), b ha e f c ed a ic a f NE A a ia i dde h ie ic e ( a i c) & h g ( fe a e i fa icide + a fa e e a ed a ai ha bee i ica c i i 2) he e ica c i i O ei i ai a ai ) i i ie e ed chi d e a i (0-4 ) f 148:100 i a ea i h g ea e = 118:100); e e b age 50 d e a e a dea h high a e f 1) e ae hif i g i age a ia ce & h high ( e i he Ha i ' e ig i e a fa e (ca. 30% ad a id e f cie ie (c e a i g a fa e i h e - died ca e f Ya a I di a e ha e 4-5 i e ; 25% ha e a ea g hi c ie e: & fficie c gi c f he Ya eii f 2) ie eii g fa i a ai a ei a e age 65g /ad courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm ec e e e c i ici ed e: e, Chag e a fa e ei , d: ai d a ic , i fa icide eg a i e ci a i ef e ca ci : a da d/da (NRC ec e d 40 g f 7/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare Ya a b d i e) a fa e e f e e be ee i age ha don' ha e b da i e i age i h e (33 g ) a i a ei i a e had a e f e e c i age i h highe (77 g ) i a e Ha i & c eag e ha e e i (e a i e ibe ha e e h he i fa ifiab e M e ei c i i ci f Chag ' ai ded b a i g high ei ), hich ee i ac f e ide ce f d had high a e f O he e ica ide, he e i " Le e f e ec i " ec i he be f " C ce 1) Nai e g e d ci - e ec i i ( hi e be efi i g f 2) I e a c & be e adi c i : g e ab e iia I , Ha i eae e f i e ei i a e i i g i e a ad-h c a g ai ai g f a fa e a fh e eg a i a g Ya h (ca. 3% e a a ai eg a i a a " b i c g f A da a i " ec e e) hc hei defea , de i e c ea i e a g ai ee e ,b ide d" ( ee a e d ece ce de e i ,haie ) e ab e " f ee- i de " h d f he ) ai effec i e a fa e ea a e he ai a i ha e e hd de c ai i (3) Land scarcit /competition e planation: A hi d e f ec f (h he i ed) gica e ai a ai f e e a fa e f c e c eii f a d, f e i c e Ie f a - ca e , -hie a chica ci e i e , ica f e i dde g h highe a e f e de ic a fa e: A a Ba i , Ne G i ea, B e , Ne Zea a d (Ma i), W, Af ica, C a i bbea O ee a ai f hi i ha ga e a i a a e i i i g fac i dde c di ca f = high ca b h d a e b e ed e e e ih a g ed be ea ei ( a f h e e , "b ffe e" he e ai c f c i a i , ai e g - e ec i i ) A he e a ai i (a a Ha i ): ha a fa e i ec ai ai i g "b ffe e ia ( eii , f ac f a i c...) e" he e ga e echa i -f ee a d: E be (1982) ed da a f Ne G i ea ed e hi , e di g c ai b Si i e (1977) ha fe i a ce f a fa e i Ne G i ea ca be acc ed f ia ec . fac i e a d h age ei ec i h hich defea ea i e courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm f i ai ad de i ( fad ic f a d ca ci ) i h f e ec 8/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare E : Frequenc of e pulsion & land redistribution: Both Rare E pulsion Frequent Both Frequent 5 1 -- Population Densit 2) L (<52/ M . (52-260/ H 2) 1 D -- -- 2) (>260/ 10 6 3 - N " S G ( "), , A I / ( ) , ( ), , S ( - , ) ( D . H - ) H / ( S ) , S /B I ( . ., ( I -I R ) ) , U.S. B -- H ( ) , F , , ,' , - A - AW D " ' (1979) " ES I' &H 1970 , , / , [see graphs from Durham 1979] I , ( , courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm ) , 9/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare ec ic, a d c a (e.g., cia c ci f e h ic e i ie ) fac , a d he ef e h d be a a ed i a ci c a hi ica ed a e (f a di c i f e f he c e deba e hi ic, ee Kah 2002 eadi g, a d he b edi ed b P e & Wa hich i e ie ) Refe ence and S gge ed Reading B eh , Ch i he (1992) Seg e a a fa e a d a age e f c f ic : a c ai f E a A f ic a c hi a ee a d a i i ea - a i c a h a . I Coalitions and allianc es in humans and other animals , ed. A. Ha c a d F.B.M. de W aa , . 137-173. O f d: O f d U. P e . B e, Ja e L. (1992) C e i i , c f ic , a d he de e e f hie a c hie . I Evolutionar Ec olog and Human Behavior, ed. E. A. S i h a d B. W i e ha de , . 301-337. Ha h e, NY: A di e de G e. Chag , Na ea A. a d Ra Sc ienc e 203: 910-13. d Ha e (1979) P ei defic ie c a d iba a fa e i A a ia: e da a. D ha , W i ia H. (1979) Sc arc it and Survival in Central Americ a: Ec ologic al Caus es of the Soc c er W ar, age 19. 21-62, & 169-173. S a f d, CA: S a f d U i e i P e . E be , Me i (1982) S a i ic a e ide c e f 49. a ec Haa , J a ha (2001) W a fa e a d he e i Fei a a d T.D. P ic e, . 329-350. NY: K Ha i , Ma i (1984) A i a c a Res earc h 40: 183-201. gic a e fc e /P e e a d Ya a a a ai f a fa e. Americ an Anthropologis t 84: 645- e. I Arc haeolog at the millenium: a s ourc eb ook , ed. G. . a fa e: e ec a d e e ide c e. J . of Anthropologic al H e -Di 45. , Th a F., e a . (1993) E i H , Th a F. (1999). Environment, s c arc it , and violenc e. P i c e e -Di Kah , C i (2002) Re ie f Pe & Wa e a c ha ge a d i e , "Vi e Ma , J e h H. a d Ric ha d W . W a gha Anthropolog 32: 360-390. Ma a d S i h, J h (1974) The he 209-22. Ma Ei e (1991) I e g f ga e a d he e c f ic . Sc ientific Americ an Feb a : 38- , NJ: P i c e Uie i Pe . ." ECSP Report 8:135-143. agg e i i i c hi fa i a c a ee a d h a . Current f ic . J . of Theoretic al Biolog 47: a d S i h, J h (1982) Evolution and the Theor of Games . Ca b idge: Ca b idge U i e i Pe . Mec h, L. Da id (1970) The W olf: The Ec olog and Behavior of an Endangered Spec ies . Ga de Ci , NY: Na Hi Pe . Me ida, Ch i ia G. a d Nei I. W ie e (1996) H Etholog and Soc iob iolog 17(4):247-262. Pe , Na c a d Mic hae W a (1977) La d h ec i e agg e i : a beha i a ec , ed . (2001) Violent Environments . I hac a, NY: C Pe e , Ja e G. (1982) I di id a Anthropolog 23:291-310. Si i e, Pa ac g ad a age? A ei e eai e U. P e g e a ec i e. . f he Ma i g i a c c e. Current age a d a i Ne G i ea. Ethnolog 16: 71-81. courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm 10/11 1/15/12 Competition & Warfare Sol i , Jo eph, Robe Bo d, and Pe e J. Ric he on (1995) Can g o p-f nc ional beha io elec ion? An empi ic al e . Current Anthropolog 36:473-483. e ol e b c l al g o p Va da, And e P. (1974) W a fa e in ec ologic al pe pec i e. Annual Review of Ec olog and S s tematic s 5:183-93. Va da, And e P. (1989) E plaining h Ma ing fo gh . J ournal of Anthropologic al Res earc h 45:159-177. courses. ashington.edu/anth457/competit.htm 11/11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course ANTH 457 taught by Professor Smith,e during the Fall '08 term at University of Washington.

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