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Ecology of disease & nutrition

Ecology of disease & nutrition - Ecolog of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition ECOLOGY OF DISEASE & NUTRITION In od c ion D ; , he E no R , , I' , 1) i n e ac : . 2) ( . ., , ) 3) - C . : " "( ) ; A T ( ; W. ) , C / / T Sickle-Cell Ca e F ickle-cell anem ia, A S .A -S S - , , H ( . ., (H H ) ( courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm - ) , ) 1/8 1/15/12 He e de Ecolog of disease & nutrition g e (H H ) ha e " ic e ce trait" -- a h i gica e f e id Ye H a e e f e ec i 30-40% i a ch e e eei ai ( W. Af ica S ch high ge e f e e cie c d be ai ai ed b e ec i i fa f he e g e , c ea i g ha ai hi " I i fec i ai e, i a i e i de i he e g e) g, c i e ,a d g- e ge e ici ca a "ba a ced ha he "ba a ce" i d e fac ha he e g e ha e e ae , a d 2) a a i a a i if i fec ed, c a ed " a " (H H ) f 1) a a ia I fac , die ha e e ea ed ha , beca e he e g e ha e highe e d c i e cce ha ai a a ia-i fe ed a ea , he di ib i f H ge e c e a che egi f e de i c a a i a = b ad ba d ac S b-Saha a Af ica (a e a a ea i E. Medi e a ea , a f S . A ia, e c.) I W. Af ica, (i.e., i i a a ia i a i ed b A nophel es , hich a e c i ai ea i e , hich b eed be ) S i dde ag i c e i c ea e c ea ed a ea , a d h i di ec i c ea i g he i cide ce f a a ia S ei he b eedi g habi a f Anopheles, he eb i g hi ec gica h he i i fac ha a ea ithout idde ag ic ea i i a ha e ig ifica e i cide ce f a a ia S i dde ag i c e+ e ad e ch f ce Re i c ea ed a ea -c c ea ed B a a Af ica, e aci g f age i c ded a e e d De e ai ea di ea e (i.e., e ch ica ai e i i c ea e (de e a id a e e i he i i e ai e (a e h i g i ic g f e a ea fc i gi he h he i ha e de i c a a i a Thi h he i a fi e ab a ed b a h e ide i gi S e he Wie e fe d U i ga a i gc ag i c e): i dde ag i c gi ) bec e a endem i c Fa Li i g e i i : b c ea i g a i de i ( h g e ec i e, a d he f e ed b e f 60 W. Af ica cie ie , Wie e fe d f d ha he f e e c f ic e-ce e a ed i h deg ee f de e de ce ag i c e (e ecia i dde / Median % of courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm ie ) Th , he e a e a i hich idde ag ic. i c ea e a a ia a e b eedi g habi a f Anopheles ec , a d b i c ea i g h a i c ea i g he a ii a e be ee h a h ) Thi e f b e a i ed ic e-ce ge e a ada a i he ie ) a a i a, a f eb ai No. of ocie ie 2/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition Agricultural dependence hetero gotes 0% 13 36-55 6 16 56-75 > 75 12 20 27 4 35% The e da a i de f he ic e-ce ge e g h he i i ig a a i a, i dde ag i c e, a d e i We ca ie hi a he c e fac e i a i e ac i be ee h a ai ad he a a ia a a i e: he ead f ag ic. a ada i e (i c ea ed h a ca i g ca aci i ica f e ), b i a i c ea ed a a ia (a i e ded a d bab e cei ed c e e ce); h a ada ed ( ia a a e ec i ge e i c a i a i ) hi a e ed ada i e i ai i h a a ed i c ea e i he f e e c f he i e de e e i ge e (H ) Thi c -e ia be ee e i a ce ce a a e e ai a a ia a d he de e e i he e effec S ecifica , he fac ha he e g e ha e a i ig ifica f ac i f he a i i e c ded f i f he H ge e; b f ic e-ce ge e i fi e i a a i a a ea he e be efi he ade- ff e e eec ea ha a Th , f e a e, he e e he e ge a e, Me de ia i he i a ce ea ha a e age 1/4 f hei ff i g i be h g f a he g bi ( h e ab e a a ia i fec i , hich i f e fa a ) a d a he 1/4 i be h g f H (h ffe i g ee e fa e f ic e-ce a e ia) Thi i a e high ice af he a a ia e i a ce aff ded b H H e e, ei i g i g e i d e ce g g e ha c a ada a i a ha e ed ed c i f he c f he ge e ic ada a i , h gh e a he ade- ff be ee i i a d di ea e Yams, Malaria, and Harvest Festivals "Ya Be " f b-Saha a Af ica = a ea f e de ic a a ia O e 100 diffe e e h i g i ic g f d he e, diffe i g g ea a d ci i ica ga i a i ( i age- e e a i gd ) O ec ha e I ai fa i i c h i i g i ic affi ia i gh ha di e i : i a a d be ief di g c i a i a ic a , a ag he e ce eb a e a a a ha e ce e hich i eceded f e e a ee b a c e e ba ac Be ief a , b a ha e ha i befa he P hibi i e i d de e i i ed b courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm ha if ie e e i ae he (Ne Ya i eha e chief each ea ; fa i ai ab a ea ,c e, ad Fe i a ), ea i g, g ea , i e f ea i e 3/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition ; J P -O - no , R (Anophele O N Y F ) " " , ; ( = 0.82, < .01), W ?O Y = - E H - , C ( , ) T , - ( ) - , , HH I , , , , - , ( ) I , - "coe ol ion" : 1) C / RS 2) B co ( ) 3) E = 4) B , 1/4 1/4 (H H 5) Y courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm - : (H H ) - ) " ) - " - ( 4/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition 6) B ince he e benefi of am ma al o inc ea e chance of mala ial an mi ion, aboo on hei con mp ion d ing heigh of mala ial ea on ma fine- ne he adap a ion e en f he Thi e ample ill ae n i ion and di ea e he in icac of connec ion be een c l e and biolog , and be een Mai e Processing in New World Yam a e pa of a idden-ba ed em foc ed on oo c op Ho e e , he majo ag ic l al ci ili a ion a e ba ed on ce eal g ain , dome ica ed in 4 diffe en egion : 1) hea = Middle Ea ; 2) ice = A ia; 3) mai e = Me oAme ica; 4) mille = W. Af ica Mai e (a.k.a. "co n") = lea n i ionall balanced of ce eal aple , e came o be Ne Wo ld ocie ie , incl ding empi e of Ma an , A ec , and o he aple of man Mai e i deficien in 2 e en ial amino acid (l ine and p ophan), a ell a in niacin (a B i amin); ho age of amino acid co ld ca e p o ein deficienc , hile niacin deficienc ca e pellag a One a of ed cing hi p oblem = "complemen a mo meal (e.g., o illa con f ijole ) Ano he a in ol e a io lime one, ood a h...) c i ine" -- i.e., combining mai e i h bean in adi ional me hod of mai e p epa a ion ia alkali p oce ing ( ing Na i e e plana ion fo p oce ing a : of en ke nel (making hem ea ie o g ind), imp o e a e (po -g inding p oce ing), e c. N i ioni di co e ed ha alkali p oce ing al o do ble a ailable l ine and inc ea e niacin -- h , make mai e m ch mo e n i io p ophan, An h opologi Solomon Ka e amined ample 39 of Ame indian ocie ie , fo nd ha alkali p oce ing co ela ed i h impo ance of mai e in adi ional die , ch ha all ocie ie he e mai e = aple engage in ch p oce ing, mo he e mai e i of mode a e impo ance do o, b almo no ocie ie he e mai e i of mino impo ance bo he i h p oce ing [see GRAPH] The e da a ppo h po he i ha p oce ing i mo e likel o occ j he e i o l d ha e g ea e n i ional benefi , and hence adap i e al e (inc ea ed g o h, e i ance o di ea e, e c.) Th , mai e-p oce ing ca e again ho in ica e adap i e ela ion hip be een ph iolog (n i ion), ecolog ( b i ence ba e), and c l e (p oce ing echnolog , food p od c ion em, c l all -p e c ibed c i ine) Ho migh hi ela ion hip be een ph iolog , ecolog , and c l Unlikel o ha e been h o gh con cio courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm e ha e e ol ed? choice: 5/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition 1) N 2) E : , 10% , ' H , ) ( . ., , ( A ( , T - ), ) , , ( 74 , 1500 10% , 1000) , T , " "( -" , ) "( ) (W ' ?P , ; ) Lac o e Ab o p ion L , , E M T N N N .A D O Y P E N E -, A M" "E N M" "Y = E I , ' 1965 , , T " A ! , ( "( ) ) A ( , ( courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm ) , ) 6/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition ea i g Wi h e i de ac a e, ch f he (fe e a i e dia hea P e e / ac a e a e e he e ed " ac e ab ii a c e fii ca , ga , e c.) a ai ab e, a d ac ed " ac e a ab be " (ea i ide ified b be " (LA f h) M ha ai ca be c a ified a ei he c i i g i ai LA a g ad ) f ab be (ad LA = 90-100%), b he e a e i e edi a e a e f LA W d i de di ib i f LA he eh f gNa dWE 2) High LA a g a fe Af ica , Midea , a d Medi e a ea 4) L ad edi a e LA a i ed a ce g e e a ce i a da d c i ica e ); f a ab e be ai (0-20% ih : 1) High LA a 3) I e ece ea ig ae ei a d hei de ce da ai LA a g a i di ge ai ch f Medi e a ea a d Nea Ea ai i O d a d Ne W d, h e ih f A e ica , Ocea ia, E a d SE A ia, Th , "Thi d W d" ai = a ab be , hich h d e ai h i e ief hi e fe e d bei g ed f hi e a hi g a , di ca ded af e e i a e c fi ed b dia hea Si ce he e i he e... a be a de e e ai he ac e ab i i e i ca , I' de i ii a e ______________________ So rces: D ha , Wi ia H. (1983) Te i g he a a ia h he i i We Af ica. I Distribution and Evolution of Hem oglobin and Globin Loci. Ne Y : E e ie Scie ce P b i hi g C ., I c. D ha , Wi ia H. (1991) Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Hum an Diversit . S a f d: Sa f dU i e i Pe . Ka , S.H., M.L. Hedige a d L.A. Va e W d. Science 184: 765-73. (1974) T adi i a ai e ce i gi he Ne Ka , S.H., M.L. Hed ge , a d L.A. Va e (1975) The a h g i ca a d i i a ig ifica ce f adi i a ai e ce i g ech i e i he Ne W d. I Biosocial Interrelations and Population Adaptation, ed. E.S. Wa , F.E. J h , a d G.W. McC ac e , R be D. (1971) Lac a e deficie c : a e a Anthropolog 12: 479-517. courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm e f di e a e i . Current 7/8 1/15/12 Ecolog of disease & nutrition Wie enfeld, S ephen L. (1967) Sickle-cell ai in h man biological and c l 157: 1134-40. courses.washington.edu/anth457/disease.htm al e ol ion. Scie ce 8/8 ...
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