Foraging Systems & Original Affluence

Foraging Systems & Original Affluence - 1/15/12...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence FORAGING SYSTEMS & "ORIGINAL AFFLUENCE" [Note: Read "Intro" plus "Original Alluent Societ ?" sections for Oct. 21st class; read section on "Foraging Strategies" for Oct. 23rd.] In ro A (H-G) , ; [see bottom panel of "M an the Hunter" m ap] T & 2 1) U 10,000 , : & , ; panel ] & , 75% 2) B S 99% [see m ap, top 1930' , H-G , ( , ...) D , ( U 30 T " K 1995: & 1 ) , H-G , V " " " ( "), , " " , , " - THE ORIGINAL AFFLUENT SOCIETY? A 1960 (R Hunter & L (L &D / !K S , /A H-G , , H-G 1968) A ) M an the T : 1) H-G 2) F , 3) C ( courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm " C ( ") , ) , 1/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence 4) B lk of food ppl come f om ga he ing plan (p ima il omen' o k) The an h opologi Ma hall Sahlin en o fa a o label H-G he "o iginal affl en ocie ", i h a " en econom " he e ca ci ha been bani hed no b boo ing p od c ion, b b ed cing economic an o a minim m (Sahlin 1972, a di c ed in Kell 1995 and Win e halde 1993 eading ) Thi ne ie of H-G ha become he o hodo "na , ho & b i h" e eo pe in an h opolog , effec i el in e ing he p e io Ho e e , he empi ical ba i fo he ne o hodo a a he lim (a handf l of die i h ac al da a, and e en ho e ba ed on j a fe eek of da a collec ion), and he e a e ome eakne e in i heo e ical ba i a ell, ai ing do b ha i p o ide an acc a e po a al of H-G a all ime and place Le ' con ide he fo ene of hi ne o hodo e idence behind each of hem (li ed abo e), and e amine he logic & Work Effort The old e eo pe ha fo age o k ince an l o mee ba e minim m of food need , and ha o k effo i h impl a f nc ion of ge ing eno gh o i e, ha been laid o e b empi ical e idence f om e e al pop la ion Thi e idence ho ha fo age of en o k ho e ho han he a e age e hnog aphe , a e aging ome 6.5 ho pe da ( ee Hame 1992 ime alloca ion g aph) Ho e e , he e a e ome p oblem 1. H o do e define In ime alloca ion outside of hom e i h concl ding ha fo age li e a life of ela i e lei e ork? di e , o k i picall defined a ac i i ie ha ec e li elihood cond c ed Thi o e look ac i i ie ha a e nece a fo b i ence hich ake place ithin he home o camp (food p oce ing, ool mfg. & main enance) One d ho ed ha incl ding ch a k can a m ch a do ble o al " o k" ime (Ha ke & O'Connell 1985, on mongongo n p oce ing among ! K ng San) F oc on di ec b i ence a k (e peciall food p od c ion) al o lea e o o he ac i i ie e en i al o i al and ep od c ion, ch a childca e o main enance of ocial ela ion In m, he e i no clea ag eemen on ho o define " o k" in a gene al, non-e hnocen ic manne ; he be e can do i o pecif ha ac i i ie a e incl ded in o ab la ion, & h 2. Is there a clear trend? Can e concl de f om he a ailable ime alloca ion da a ha fo age courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm gene all o k le han 2/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence people in other modes of subsistence? There are two reasons to doubt this (if by "other" modes, we mean "all other") First, available cross-cultural evidence indicates that swidden horticulturalists (from Amazonia and from New Guinea highlands) work less than H-Gs (see Hames graph again) On other hand, intensive agriculturalists (pre-industrial or industrial) work much more than either HGs or swiddeners, while average work time declines somewhat in advanced industrial society (ditto) Second, there is problem of sample size: quantitative data on time allocation only available for a handful of forager societies (n=4 in Hames' compilation, though this has doubled in the last dozen years), and no data at all for sedentary foragers with complex socioeconomic systems (e.g., Native California, Northwest Coast, prehistoric Woodland culture in E. No. America, upper Paleolithic Europe, northern Japan) For the 4 H-G groups in Hames' sample, daily mean work effort ranges from 5 to 9 hrs, a range which overlaps with several groups in other subsistence modes Even passing acquaintance with statistics would caution us about drawing any firm conclusions on time allocation trends from these data Resource Suppl and Demand Second major tenet of "new orthodoxy" is that H-Gs regulate their population densities below the "carrying capacity" of environment in order to avoid overexploiting their resources and degrading their environment Besides the theoretical problems with this argument (some of which have been discussed in previous lecture notes), it is empirically problematic for two reasons: First, evidence indicates that many foragers are nowhere near overharvesting resources (for example, among the ! Kung, Lee [1979] notes that millions of mongongo nuts -- the ! Kung staple -rot on the ground every year, and Hill [1983] has calculated that ! Kung annually harvest <1% of large herbivore biomass in their area, whereas sustainable yield = 10-20%, depending on the species) Second, Nancy Howell's detailed demographic study (Howell 1979) suggests that the low birth rate of ! Kung nevertheless results in an annual population growth rate of 0.5%, which although low is still positive (and as we know from population ecology, could not persist long without resulting in skyrocketing exponential population expansion); other detailed demographic studies of H-G populations lacking market involvement and external medical resources have also revealed positive growth trends (e.g., Blurton Jones et al. 1992 on Hadza; Hill & Hurtado 1996 on Ache) Theory and evidence (e.g., Blurton Jones et al. 1994) suggests that main limits on forager population density may not be food abundance per se, but rather the adeoff between foraging effort and other factors (parental care, avoidance of mortality risks, etc.) courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm 3/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence I , ( "C " costs ( , , D .), 1984 ), m arginal ( & I " " ) , ( I , .) , H-G H , 1-2 , - , , A " " (S 1972) H-G ( ), ; : 1) ; H-G " " , ( ), ( . ., NW ( . ., 2) A ; ) , , N ), ( . ., C ), ( . ., NW C ) 3) , ( , , 4) .) ( , ) E , ( / H H-G , ) K ( H &M A H P , (1996:319-20) H V " ," ): ...the concept of the "original affluent societ " (Sahlins 1972) as a characteri ation of hunter-gatherers is flawed. The Ache eat better than alm ost an other group of courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm 4/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence f age ee died (Hi e a . 1984), a d he eigh c i de ab e ha e g ch a he !K g, e da a c ea i dica e ha he d ge "e gh f d ee hei eed ." M e f d i h i ac ii e fe i i fb h e e a d a a i c e a e ch i d i a ... Si ce i di id a c ie ice a de i e f high fe i i , a d high i hi , a d ch a efe e ce d be fa ed b a a e ec i de a c di i , he e i ba i f he a ei h a h e A ch e b a i a h e f d h e e e d . R e g a d e fh ah he a ac i i g f d, ei he he Ache e be fa he f agi g cie ca be h ee hei f d eed i a bi gica e e. I deed, ei he he Ache a he adi i a e e i h h e ha e ed i he a decade ag ee i h he ii ha he b ai a he f d he eed. I e a d , h e e h a i ca i i h a h e a e h g a d d efe e f d... The " igi a aff e cie " h gge i g ha a ce ea i e hei dai eed bef e e beca e g eed a d bega de i e e ha ha hich i e ce a i a i d e a h a e e ab a e e ie h ce ah gica h gh ha i d e ab he i e f f agi g e e . The " igi a aff e cie " c ce ha ba i i e i ica ea i bi g , b i i a ac e h a beca e i ead e be f de ci e i e a i d he e a h gi ha he h d fee he c ide i g he igh f e e i i g de diffic c di i . I deed, af e e e ee ea f i g i h f age i h ee diffe e c i e a d hea i g he c ai f h g e , h e c i e f ch i d e , a d h a i g a ched e e ffe i g f e ha de i ab e hea h, i i diffic f fee cha i ab e a d h e h ha e e e a ed hi fa cica hi de ah g .N i i g , he f age ih h e ha e ha ed i e fee he a e a : "If he hi ha hi i a he f d e a , e hi c e d he e a d ea i h , a d feed hi chi d e ha hich e feed " (Da i a, a Hi i f age , c e i g i 1988 ab a a h c ai ha he H i i a fe h e da beca e he b ai e f f d). G o p Compo i ion & Land Ten e A hi d ge e a i a i ha ha bee ide acce ed i ce M a he H e i ia b da i e a d e f ee e he a d ca e a d be ee A h gh hi ge e a i a i d e ee e h g a hic e ide ce f i i e e he e I ge e a , hi e H-G d i ee i e i gh e d be e i h e ec be a b e a ic a i e i ed he ede a ha ag ic ae a d, he e i f di e i e i ha H-G ac cia g ecedi g , he e ,a d ha e e Th , i Na i e N . A e ica a e, H-G a d e a e a ge a he a f e high bi i a d e a - a a b e ce f a d e hi a g S h h e f ce a G e a B a i C ee/Na a i f ea e ba c ic (i e-f - ade da ), ig , fa i , e e i di id a e hi f e ce i e a g N h e C a a d C a i f i a I di a , i h i e edi a e ca e i i gc i e hi (a d ac i e defe e) f e i ie i a ca e (e.g., courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm 5/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence A E ) L ( ( "L T "), ' ) Ga he ing . H n ing F G , ( & W H-G ( . ., L !K M an the Hunter! ) ) , 60-70% T H-G ( , , A , 1960 , : A L ) . ' !K , " I 181 Ethnographic Atlas (EA 77% H , H-G ? " - ), 23% , , EA ( ) , -- EA -[see graphs of EA cases & b latitude & region] S , 42 [ (57% NYC], . 17% 84% E A [H 1981]) A I , 42 , , ), . 25% : 42 EA N ( . ., N S N. EA N, 2% N, 51% A & ; , & I , ( . ., A , P ) H-G , & ( . ., courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm & 6/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence i ib e A acc e hea i ga he i g -- edib e ae ca ce) e ge e a i he e i ha e ai i g ha ca e a ia i i H-G b i e ce ca i hed / a i ica a e age ai e ae e ("I ge e a , H-G a e....") A ch be e e ea ch ha igh e ai h e c. Be e a a eg i de e e H-G e a ai ab e ca dida e f acc be a d e e planator theories f b i e ce ch ice a f d , he ga e, i he fi hi g, i hi g hi a ea be " i a f agi g he ," hich FORAGING STRATEGIES Optimal Foraging Theor O i a f agi g he (OFT) = b a ch f beha i a ec g c a egi e i a ecie f a i a (bee , bi d , a d h a ) Ah b ai de c i i f OFT = "deci i Th , a h gh i i ia de e ed i e beha i a cie ce (i.e., ic ec S e ai cha ac e i ic 1) C i f ef eda ce ed i h e ai i g f agi g " (K eb 1978) i a bi g , OFT ha ic & deci i he ) a affi i ie ce ai f OFT: de ( i ified a he a ica e e e a i ) 2) A e c g i i e echa i c i g f agi g beha i a e "de ig ed" b a a e ec i e d cha gi g c di i i a ha a i i e be efi f age ( h , ac -ba ed, f e ib e, a ge e i c de e i i ) 3) F c i strategies (ge e a deci i ca eg ie , e.g., tactics ( ecie - ecific ech i e f ca e) 4) M de ba ed g a a dc ai OFT b ea c ei i i ai f f agi g a ce ach: deci i i e ch ice) a he ha ai ie d i c e e d e ci i i he e courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm e ch ice (g ieae e c , gi e ca eg ie : 1) P e ch ice (a. .a. die b ead h) = hat ha e 2) Pa ch ch ice = here f age 3) Ti e a ca i = ho long f age f each a e a i e 4) S cia f agi g = i h hom f age (g i e) share (f Wi i i di c ec ae i c d, i f ai ) e) 7/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence Optimal Pre -Choice Model The be f ha e Thi de ha bee ade ce i i a i 1995; G a & Ca Ca ei a ha e i add e ef ig id f e 3) Wh a e ab da e ce e i e a e he e e e c S a da d ei ecia i ed i 2) Wh d e e ch ice hif 1b a ed a i e 2) i ai e -ch ice " i a di e " de ed b a h gi a d a chae gi a i g e ai e ch ice ae a g H-G ( e ie i S i h 1991; Ka a & Hi 1992; Ke 1999; Wi e ha de & S i h 2000) 1) Wh a e eg e di e e di e ? 4) H ed i h : hei f h de ge e i e ig e ed? de a ef ?( e e e he e ce ab ha e ae a i e ed? Wh a e ca ce e i a e ch ice affec ed b cha ge i de i ? Tech g? e -ch ice ce ch ice , hi e ce da ce? F age i g: 1) P e ( a & a i a ) a e di i ded i ecie , b a he di i g i hed b e be ) "e e "( e ce a i L i e a e i ha d i g i e -- ee i 2) & 4) 2) F agi g i e c i f a e c i e ca eg ie : ea ch i e (f a acce ab e e e ) a d handling i e (i c di g i ce e c e ed, ca e& ce i g; a ie b e e) 3) P e i e ( e ce a i e a i di i d a ga i -- e.g., ha df f be ie , e -f f hi )a ee c e ed i g a d i c e a ed fa hi : im l aneo ea ch a i 4) F age ca i e (a. .a. " aa -e c e e a g i g e di e ee a e" ) 5) G a i ha e efe e hich i T a Ha e / T a F agi g Ti e, he a e c ha d i g i e ) Gi e he e a ha e i a gi e N e ha he 1) If ia i ,h i ai ? e -ch ice d a f age de e de defi e a ce i faee a i i e he o e all e n a e (i.e., i i g f ea ch i e + f i e he a i a a ge f e e ade- ff: ecia i e i highe - a ed ( efficie ha e ed) e ib e ea ch c e i ha e ed ( e d he iea courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm i ha d i g e, face highe ig 8/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence " " , - 2) I ) , - ( . ., ) S ( 5) T , [N , :V= ), " , '" = : V /H < V / (T + H ) ; =" "; H = , ( . ., P E ) ;T = , , "A - ( )" T ( " " , ) [ K 1995:85-86 A - , , S / 1) W - ?S ( . ., ) , / 2) W / - ?N ( ' , -- ) T - ( ) ( . ., , P .) - , ; - , , - ( ) T , - courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm 9/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence e - a ed i c i i hi ei i e i a e , a d ha e c e a e i ha e e ha effec i on I a e ha i a die affec ed b ab da ce f high- a ed e e e e, b b encounter rate i h each e; he a e ca be de e i ed b cha ge i f age de i a eadi a b cha ge i e de i ; he ef e: 3) Wha ha e e e ai ca i a e c e i f f agi g he a e, de e a e). a i i c ea e (e a di g edi c idening f die ( i ce 4) Wha i effec f cha ge i ech g ha e a )? E ec narro ing f die b ead h (d e high- a ed e e) 5) Cha ge i de f e ai f h-g)? If a face a e ed e e a ch c (e.g., i ed i c ea ed e c e ae ih e ch g ha affec ha d i g c a e , a e b ead h f i a die , e c. ig ifica : ca cha ge a Q a iai e e f . di e de i h h-g ha e bee fai cce f , b de c ibe he e ( ee Ke , ch 3 eadi g, a d c ic he e f a g a h f e e he Ache I dia f P a ag a ) de ai ed i ica e a e, f G d ai a i e e f e -ch ice de = Wi e ha de (1981) B ea F e (S ba c ic f age i N. O a i h beca e i ed i f ade i 1700 ) B ef e f a hide ade, C ee f aged a e , fi hh ,a d A ai ab e i f b ead h ai I eeif fi h e -- g ea ea ch c ) Th , Ic e ed f de he, ee b ca die b ead h i h ab igi a ech ade ed ad i ed ci g ha d i g c edi c a f , ih ea ca f , e efficie "ha d i g de ice " -- i e ac i de ec fe e (b a e , if e , affec i g ica e ide ce bea i de ab e be f die ha e f d e ch ice a d edic i g a fea e f e ce deci i i H-G (a d e a g ag i c a i ); he e f de a e ch iche ha c i de a i f a ch ch ice, ce a - ace f agi g (e.g., f ch ice be ee d ci g (ca ig e ce ) c hei ), a d hi b ad a d Re i g edic i i f a i g f die b ead h, a d c e fe high- e ecie ( e, ha e, bea e , fi h), a i g ha e ed i f - ade e a courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm a da edi a e" di e e i d, ha d i g ech g i e cha ged, b i ) ha e g ea ed ced ea ch c C gge ed b a "i e b ad, ge e a i ed die , a d hi g e; he C ee a a bi e ( C ee d ecia i e ecie hei a ce a he OFT de d ie e i e , i h i ab e difica i , di c ed he e, a d i c de af a i age ca ), gi g (ha i g he f ef 10/12 1/15/12 Foraging S stems & Original Affluence OFT ha e e bee a he d i de eb i ed cce f aa e ea ch a egi e i i b a da aba e a d Th gh de d a a ch da a i e e a i a i e de ai , da e he e a a fa e d e a e , a d OFT ee i de c i de ab e i i gh i he gic f deci i a i g i f agi g ec ie - Summar Mai edi c i f i a di e 1) P e e added 2) A b di e da ce f high- a a dd 3) I c i fa e a e, a d de e d N e ha he e edic i h e f 1) i ae If a i he e ca e : 2) ei i e-c ed ed f di e i e ead a de ecia i a i fe /ha d i g i e , hi e ca ci ead i a di e i i de e de f i ab da ce ec e a e i h highe - a ed e ae ea e a ch a d 2 ) e , he e i 1) a ch-ch ice de : i ab e he e a b i abi i f ia i f e ( i ge c i g he de ; h b ad ec e de a e e , e ecia ec ch a ca ie ) e e , he e a e a e a i e f de ec de (e.g., i ea ga i g) F he e, i ae ea ch ( a d ec e )a i a beca e hi ca be a ied a a ch-b - a ch ba i (S i h 1991) i ge a igh hi , References Cited B aa J e , Nic h a G., e a . 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(1995) The foraging s pec trum: divers it in hunter-gatherer lifewa s . W a hi g I i i Pe . K eb , J h R. (1978) O i a f agi g: dec i i ef Approac h, ed. J.R. K eb a d N.B. Da ie , . 23-63. S , D.C.: S i h ia eda . I Behavioural Ec olog : An Evolutionar de a d, MA: Si a e /O f d: B ac e . Lee, Ric ha d B. (1979) The !Kung San: Men, W omen and W ork in a Foraging Soc iet . Ca b idge, Ne Y Ca b idge U i e i P e . : Lee, Ric ha d B. a d I e DeV e (ed .) (1968) Man the Hunter. Chic ag : A di e. Sah i , Ma ha D. (1972) The Chic ag : A di e. igi a aff e c ie . I Stone Age Ec onomic s , b Ma ha Sah i , . 1-39. S i h, E ic A de (1991) Inujjuamiut Foraging Strategies : Evolutionar Ec olog of an Arc tic Hunting Ec onom . Ha h e, NY: A di e de G e. W i e ha de , B c e P. (1981) F agi g a egie i he b ea f e : A a a i f C ee h i g a d ga he e i g. I Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies , ed. B. W i e ha de a d E.A. S i h, . 66-98. Chic ag : U i e i f Chic ag Pe . W i e ha de , B c e a d E ic A. S i h (2000) A a Evolutionar Anthropolog 9(2):51-72. courses.washington.edu/anth457/foraging.htm i g ada i e a egie : h a beha i a ec ga e -fi e. 12/12 ...
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