Niche theory & cultural diversity

Niche theory & cultural diversity - 1/15/12 Niche...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit NICHE THEORY, CULTURAL DIVERSITY, & BIODIVERSITY Intro One of the striking facts about contemporary society, and indeed of much of recorded history, is the division of the human species into distinct ethnic groups, whose interrelations are sometimes antagonistic and sometimes mutualistic While there are many interesting ways social scientists analyze this phenomenon, ecological theory may provide some additional insights This lecture approaches this topic as follows: 1. What is ecological niche theory? (brief summary) 2. How can we apply this theory to human ethnic diversity? 3. How is such diversity (or cultural diversity more broadly) related to biodiversity? Niche Theor Niche concept is central to modern ecological theory In particular, niche is used to describe and analyze 1. ways in which diff. species interact (including competition, resource partitioning, exclusion or coexistence); 2. why some species are rare and others abundant; 3. what determines geographical distribution of a given species; 4. what determines structure and stability of multi-species communities Term "niche" borrowed from church architecture, but in ecology it is not a spatial term like habitat or environment (though related to these) What's the difference between the two concepts? Habitat = "address" (environmental region or community inhabited by a population) Niche = "profession" (way in which a population utilizes a habitat) Though realizing that any population's niche is multi-dimensional in very complex ways, ecologists have often simplified analyses by considering one or two dimensions at a time (e.g., food resource niche) Niche theory distinguishes between fundam ental & reali ed niches: fundamental = all possible conditions under which population reproduces itself realized niche = the actual niche exhibited in particular time & place 1/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit Rea i ed iche i a ea ; ei a c ei a a be a b e f (" a e ha ") he f da e a iche, f de e i a f ea i ed iche i e e ce ab e ce f diffe e Reca he defi i i f e c g i ca c eii effec g h a e f N2 beca e b h de a d) e ce Ob i , he e i i ed e ce iche a e), he g ea e he i ac f c ai cc he a e a C e 2) e 3) e Which Thi (CEP) c bh e e ai ae e c ai e ha c e i i a hei a) i g he am e e ce iche, he b defi i i he e a e 3 ce ei cc (i.e., he he ce iche c e i i i i e a he a e e he ce , e ee 1) ha e e ai a ee eii ec e): e e ce f N1 ha ega i e i i e >1 f a e i i ed ( e a i e ai ha e i c e i i (a e e bei g e C ide a e e e ca e: Ca 2 a ee i e? If 2 a di (c ai ai cc ? A ei ef ib e e a c e ( ei he iche hi i ai ai e d ce i i e fi di g gi e f =2 cha ge iche) e a (niche pa i ioning) e e (com pe i i e e cl iche he : 3, b i on) 1 a a e f co m p e i i e e cl ion p inciple CEP a e ha no o pecie can pe m anen l occ p he am e niche: ei he he iche i diffe , e i be e c ded b he he ( e: "e c ded" he e ea e aced b diffe e ia ai g h, ece a i b figh i g e i ia i ) Of c ece e, 100% iche e a i afc eii ee c i M ch he & e ea iche e a & c ib e (a e i f c ai affec hi i b e; b ch a e f iche cha ge e e ca e i ch i ec g ha f c ed edic i g ha ac a ha e he e i i : Whe d e e c i e , he c e i e ce? H ch ea ed b he " he f i i i g i i a i ")? H d e i ea ? Wh a e e ecie ge e a i , he e ci a i ? Bh ib e e e iche c ed c i i iche e a ) a e c bee di ed b h ee ea : ab e i ai C c e i e if i he f he e i ea i e i i (c e i i e e c i , a d c e i e ce ia b e ed, a d hei de e i a a d fea e ha e e i e , fie d b e a i , a d a he a ica de eii ee c i i c b e ed he a ecie c i e a habi a a d e e i di ge ecie ( bab d e ab e ce f a a i e a d eda ada ed i he c i e ); (e.g., i d ced ace a . i di ge a ia i A a i a) 2/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit C e i e ce h gh iche a i i i g i ace ef b " he gh fc eii " The ica ea a ia , a d he - ea ae b e ed di ec , b fd i g i ea ie c a e he iche f each ca f e be i fe ed f ai ha ea a i i he a ea f a ia , b ea . he a ea f I ch a ca e, e f e b e e ha i a ea he e c ei c e i , e b h ha e a e iche a ge (e.g., die b ead h) ha i a ea he e c e i i ab e ; hi i beca e c e i i "f ce " each c ei g ai e ci a i e i h e e ce ( he iche di e i ) i hich i ha a c e i i e ad a age, a d c ee " gi e " h e i hich he he ai c ee i Th , i ab e ce f c ei a gi e ecie (c e i f da e a iche) ha i i i c "c e i i e e ea e" Whe iche hif i ai ,i i e Thi i ie i fe ei ' i i e a b ade a a f e e e ce; hi he e i eae i a cha ge i a ib e ("cha ac e ") f c ed cha ac e di placem en ef ge id ha e a e a i e e f e ide ce f a ai e fc eii i A c a ic e a e f cha ac e di ace e i cha ge i e g h i i a bi d ecie ha e a ge g a hica [GRAPH] ei g ha i g iche , beca ha e f bea ce e ed i ec ei i gica Human Niche Diversit The ie f iche ( ch a CEP & e a ed de ) i a i de i g ed a a e i e ac i be ee diffe e ecie ; b fc ea h gi a e i e e ed i a i i iche diffe e ce i hi a i g e ecie (Hom o apien ) Beca ei e fc a f e ibi i (a d ech g ), h a a e ab e e , a d ad eee ide a ge f iche cc e F he e, ecific h a g ca bec e high ecia i ed i a iche), a d e he a e e . i diffe e a (ei he e e ia , ia c i ae , a i S a ca e a a ed b Ba h-- ee be ) Thi ha ed a ec gica a h i di i c i e iche H b e e , diffe e c e ae ai , e e 3) e ge i The e i bi i i e be ee diff. h a H gi he a e a diffe e i ge ai a e i ic a ai /c e e e , i f e ee i i d ha a g e ha each h i hh ee i de a ge f f i i i g e . (i.e., a cha ge/e i, a ai c e ha ecie , i ce he ca 1) i e b eed, 2) ec gica iche he a e a e a i g ab aa i f i e ac i ecological pop la ion a d 3/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit , , I , , / Ethnic Groups in Sw at (Barth 1956) B ' N (F B = P N ; - , , , ) B P 3 [ ee T A B LE and M A P ] 1) K = 2) P + = 3) G E . , N. ; ; = S ; 1000-1600 AD 400 = (18,000 ) , C 3 , P / , K ( , .) C -O , , ) ; S ) : 1) 2) " . - , " 3) . .( : ) niche ( ) Biological & Cultural Diversit I , 4/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit , T M B (2005) ,I 2 1) A 2) I ; I , : & ? , ? Are Biodiversit & Cultural Diversit Correlated? V ( M 2001, M 2005) & M ( . ., , M ) : U , , / , (# ) (# &D ( . ., W A ) (H ) ), , . ., ), ) 1995) endemic onl ( 1996) A ( . ., M T , ( . ., 2003) . 2002; S , ) & ; , (S 2003; M 2005) Wh are Biological & Cultural Diversit Correlated? A & ) , W , (S ( ' wh 3 2001): (1) C 5/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit (2) Biodiversity drives increased cultural diversity (3) Some third factor (or factors) co-determines both cultural and biological diversity All 3 possibilities have some plausible candidates, and these are not mutually exclusive (each could predominate in particular cases) 1) Does cultural diversit enhance biodiversit ? The first hypothesis focuses on small-scale societies (locally adapted, therefore high cultural diversity per unit area) Proposed mechanisms: (a) Intentionally conserve biodiversity (for livelihood or for religious reasons) (b) Create habitat mosaics & moderate disturbance regimes (burning, swidden) (c) Low environmental impact due to low population densities & high mobility (foraging & swidden agriculture) Evidence for (a) is mixed, while (b) and (c) are well supported 2. Does biodiversit enhance cultural diversit ? Main idea = high biodiversity provides more niches for human populations, allowing higher cultural diversification Evidence for this mixed at best: Some areas of low BD & high CD (e.g., Niger Delta), while other areas of high BD & low CD (e.g., deserts) Biodiversity has to be “right kind” (relevant to human subsistence) to favor niche diversity (people don t eat trees…) 3. Does som e third factor enhance both biodiversit and cultural diversit ? There are a number of candidate “third factors”: (a) Warmer, wetter climate = longer growing season (Nettle 1998); this allows evolution/coexistence of more plant species, which in turn allows denser human populations, hence more ethno-linguistic groups per unit area (= higher cultural diversity) (b) Warmer, wetter climate = more parasites; effect on biodiversity is as in (1), but in turn the parasites favor local cultural & genetic adaptations, and thus limit intrusion of empires & colonial populations (c) Geographic barriers to dispersal could affect both plant/animal species & human groups (Sutherland 2003) 6/7 1/15/12 Niche theor & cultural diversit (d) Expansion of large-scale social systems (empires, colonial powers) reduces both biological & cultural diversity (Smith 2001) This is arguably most important third factor causing correlation between biodiversity & cultural diversity, since such systems require surplus production, based on intensive agriculture (difficult in tropical forests), high population densities, and trade (hence increasing demand for extracted resources) This of course raises the issue of the increasingly strong impacts of governmental and economic expansion ("globalization" etc.) on areas of high cultural and biological diversity in today's world, a topic we turn to in the last couple of class sessions... Refe ence Ba h, F ed ik (1956) Ecologic ela ion hip of e hnic g o p in S a , No h Paki an. American Ant hropologist 58:1079 89. Ha mon, Da id (1996) Lo ing pecie , lo ing lang age : Connec ion be een biological and ling i ic di e i . Sout hwest J. of Linguist ics 15:89- 108. Maffi, L i a, ed. (2001) Language, k nowledge, and t he env ironment : The int erdependence of biological and cult ural div ersit . Wa hing on, D.C.: Smi h onian In i ion P e . Maffi, L i a (2005) Ling i ic, c l al, and biological di e i . Annual Rev iew of Ant hropolog 29:599- 617. Moo e, Jo lin L., e al. (2002) The di ib ion of biological and c l al di e i in Af ica. Proceedings of t he Ro al Societ of London, B 269(1501):1645- 1653. Ne le, Daniel (1998) E plaining global pa e n of ling i ic di e i . J. of Ant hropological Archaeolog 17:354- 74. Smi h, E ic Alden (2001) On he coe ol ion of c l al, ling i ic, and biological di e i . 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