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Origins of Agriculture - Origins of Agriculture ORIGINS OF...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE The P oblem, and Some Al e na i e Sol ion F 5000 W , , , ( ) O 2,000 [ , T , -- ' ., , ( 50 1. C l . - V . 10,000 N G ) : al P o g e I A ( . ., " A , " H om o api en - ), , " R " B (1964) ; ... m all g o p of people li ing no in hi ca e, no in ha ...a he m o ed af e he anim al he h n ed [ i h] no im e o hink of an hing b food and p o ec ion...all in all, a a age' e i ence, and a e o gh one. A m an ho pend hi hole life follo ing anim al j o kill hem o ea , o m o ing f om one be pa ch o ano he , i eal l l i i ng j like an anim al him elf. [ W 1993] T , W , , , ; , , W C . S O courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm ( . ., N ), , m o i a i on 1/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture Progress model assumes that motivation is obvious: agriculture would be less work, more reliable, and more productive than foraging But available evidence suggests that foragers do not necessarily work harder for subsistence, do not necessarily have less reliable resource base, do not usually face greater risk of famine (may even be lower), and do not consider their life inferior to that of subsistence agriculturalists or pastoralists; in fact, many have argued that foragers have easier and more fulfilling life than agriculturalists ("original affluence" view), though as discussed in earlier lecture notes and readings this is controversial In any case, there is little evidence that agriculture is more efficient (has higher yield per unit labor time) than foraging, and many of the wild ancestors of domesticated crops (grass seeds, small tubers, etc.), termed "proto-domesticates," appear to have been relatively low-yielding, inefficient resources As for greater productivit (yield per unit land) of agriculture, this is undeniably true, but only under specific ecological conditions, and only for fully domesticated resources that have been genetically modified to increase their yields The case against the "progress" hypothesis is quite strong, but this only accentuates the explanatory problem -- if foraging economies are so successful, and proto-domesticates so unrewarding, why the repeated and eventually worldwide shift to agriculture? 2. En ironmental change hypothesis also very popular in past First, there is the obvious correlation of agriculture origins with end of Pleistocene Terminal Pleistocene = time of rapid env. change, extinction of many game species, rise of sea level, rapidly warming climate, etc. However, closer look by archaeologists reveals problems with this hypothesis Not first time of major climatic change -- this occurred often in the Pleistocene (the geological epoch in which our genus evolved, lasting from about 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago) Second, agriculture arose independently at several times and places -- and in particular, quite a bit later (after end of Pleistocene) in the Americas [see timeline Graph again] However, recent detailed paeleoclimatological reconstructions (based on Greenland ice cores & deep-sea mud cores) indicate that during the late Pleistocene (last 100,000 years) climatic fluctuations were extremely abrupt on very short time scales (e.g., annual swings in mean temperature of 10 F. not unusual), and overall climate much drier, colder, and less rich in carbon dioxide (key to plant respiration) than in the Holocene (= last 12,000 years) Given this, some have recently suggested that agriculture was essentially impossible in the Pleistocene (Richerson et al. 2001) However, present consensus seems to be that while climate change may be factor in origins of agriculture, is not sufficient in itself courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm 2/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture 3. Pop la ion p e e I , fo ce , F -( , ) G " in en ifica ion; ( / ) "( B ) / F , - , ( ) P , I , G " "[ Co -c e g aph, (1978)] T B B ( . ., , - ; ; ) R : 1) , . , 2) ( , , , & M ) im ing -- ? A - P -- , I , P -- , ? 4. Coe ol ion courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm 3/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture C , " - ; ) ( . ., ), " (PD I I PD ," ( . ., ( " ); " " ) C PD , " T PD " PD ( ) PD F , ( ) , , , ( PD , . ) I ( . ., ), , i ndependent D R ( ) PD W , how wh , , ; ( . ., , , .) S & , part W , ' Archaeological Da a A 7, & , courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm ( T 5.1 D ): 4/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture Centers of domestication Dates ( ears b.p.) Nea Ea /"fe i e c e ce " 11,000 N he Chi a 9,000 S he Chi a (?) 8,000 Ce a Me ic 5,750 P e i a A de 5,250 Pa a Ne G i ea 6-9,000 We Af ica 4,500 E a e N . A e i ca 4,000 T ba i c e f ag i c e e ea ed i a chae gica ec d: 1) eed-c = ce ea g ai ( hea , ai e, ice); cc i i e e c g i ca c i ie ( ecie di e i ); e d c i e, b ab e -- c i a i c a h a i e e i (e.g., b i g, i i g, eedi g) 2) egec e= c e ac c , e ab i c a d ee c ( a i c, a , a , a i ie ( i- ecie ); e d ci eb eeded Beca e eed-c d e ica i e e a i , hi e egec e i e ), a chae gi a Ea i e ai d a a da i a d 1) c i a i c c di i fa ab e fi i e hi had ha e ed 2) ede a eee 3) highe ai de i a i ie cc ca. 11,000 ag i Nea Ea g i h g a & hee ) e ica i cc ed i Nea Ea , f i d ce ea (ba e , hea , a d i age ( h ha had gh i ei 4) g i ca ca e (I a /I a a ea); i gc di i e), h gh e f agi g ec cc ie cad , a ); e ab e ha eed ace i a i i a id egi i h g d a chae i gi a ed i i ic ( e e a i , diffic e ab eed-c i gi e -d c e ed d e ica e e ica e = hea & ba e (a A i e he e ai ed: e he ) ed i a ea b i e ce b a e d e b ad ec fe ce ( i d ce ea ; g a e = g a , hee , dee ; f a ga e, e e i e eb a e i e ca ) ; ai , F i 2 c di i a e d d e i ca i ceed, hi e a 2 gge ada i e ad a age f dig a ha e bee e fac ( ai g h, e de e i , c i a e cha ge eadi g e i c i ) fa i g ide die b ead h Optimal Foraging and Agricultural Origins A de ai ed a g e a g he e i e ha bee de e courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm ed b B ce Wi e ha de & Ca G ad 5/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture (1997; W W &K 2006) -G / ( - - ) - A , ( - ), ( . ., PD ) - & ; - , (. , PD ) A ( ), PD ( . ., abundant (not ) - , - ) ( , ) [see Table] T " ( " ) A ( . ., - , ) , PD R , : 1. P 2. F 3. I / / PD ( ) PD 4. A A , & T , , T ( : , .) , Refe ence Ci ed B B ,P ,R (2005) Firs t Farmers : The Origins of Agric ultural Soc ieties . O (1964) Prehis toric Men. C G ,M A. (1978) T Arc haeologic al Method and Theor , V . 1, courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm :C . M. B . S N , H . 31-48. N :B M Y . :A . I Advanc es in P . 6/7 1/15/12 Origins of Agriculture Ric he on, Pe e J., Robe Bo d, and Robe L. Be inge (2001) W a ag ic l e impo ible d ing he Plei oc ene b manda o d ing he Holoc ene? A c lima e c hange h po he i . Americ an Antiquit 66(3):387 411. Rindo , Da id (1980) S mbio i , in abili , and he o igin and p ead of ag ic l Anthropolog 21(6): 751-72. e: a ne model. Current Rindo , Da id (1984) The Origins of Agric ulture: An Evolutionar Pers pec tive. Ne Yo k : Ac ademic P e . Rindo , Da id (1989) Da ini m and i ole in he e plana ion of dome ic a ion. In Foraging and Farming, D. R. Ha i and G. C. Hillman, ed , pp. 27-41. London: Un in H man. W in e halde , B c e (1993) W o k , e o c e , and pop la ion in fo aging oc ie ie . Man 28:321 340. W in e halde , B c e and Ca ol Goland. (1997) An e ol iona ec olog pe pec i e on die c hoic e, i k , and plan dome ic a ion. In K i en J. G emillian, ed. Peoples , Plants , and Lands c apes : Studies in Paleoethnob otan . T c aloo a, AL: U. of Alabama P e . W in e halde , B c e and Do gla Kenne (2006) Beha io al ec olog and he an i ion f om h n ing and ga he ing o ag ic l e. In Behavioral Ec olog and the Trans ition to Agric ulture, ed. D. Kenne and B. W in e halde , pp. 1-21. Be k ele : U. of Califo nia P e . courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agorigin.htm 7/7 ...
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