Swidden & Agricultural Intensification

Swidden & Agricultural Intensification - 1/15/12 S...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/12 S idden & Agricultural Intensification AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION [No e: fo Oc . 28 h cla , ead "I ntro" pl ec ion on "Sw idden S stems"; fo No . 2nd, em ainde ( ec ion on "Agricultural I ntensification"); no addi ional lec e no e fo No . 4 h] Intro Agricultural s stems come in man varieties, and can be classified man different wa s One of the most useful classifications for ecological anal sis is in terms of in en ifica ion Intensification refers to an practice that a) increases productivit per unit land area at b) some cost in labor or capital inputs Agricultural intensification takes man specific forms, including irrigation, fertili ation, use of draft animals or machiner to till soil, etc. One important dimension of agricultural intensification = length of fallo period (Note: "fallow" = letting land lie uncultivated for a period) Some agricultural s stems have no fallow period (instead, continuous cropping), but most do Influential classification is that of Ester Boserup (Danish agroeconomist speciali ing in third-world agriculture): Fallow T pe Cropping Period Fallow Period Forest fallow Bush fallow Grass fallow Annual cropping Multi-cropping 1-3 ears 1-8 ears Several ears A few months Continuous 20 ears or more 6-10 ears 1-2 ears Less than 1 ear None Length of fallow found in an particular agricultural s stem will depend on several factors (latitude, climate, soils, etc.), and obviousl some limits are hard to override (e.g., can't have multi-cropping if growing season is too short) However, environment usuall sets onl broad limits, and specific fallow s stem that develops ma often reflect adjustments made b farmers in response to various economic and social factors Boserup's ke argument is that sequence from long-fallow to shorter and shorter fallow periods is an historical progression driven primaril b population growth (see below) SWIDDEN SYSTEMS If Boserup idea of shortening fallow being an historical trend is valid, then the earliest and least intensive form of agriculture = long-fallow ("forest-fallow") This s stem often termed idden or slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation; common in tropics, but once much more widespread (incl. prehistoric Europe) T pical features of swidden s stems: 1. small areas of forest or brush cleared with slash & burn method (releases nutrients held in plant tissues) 2. soil prepared with dibble stick or hoe (no plowing) courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm 1/6 1/15/12 S idden & Agricultural Intensification 3. h a ab 4. i de f e f fe i i e 5. i i ga i 7. h c e , ( ai fa ga de e i di e i (e.g., ed b e g fa i ,e S ec d, e c ea de " a ef " i f a d i 1. i ca i a e fe f a e gh f i e 2. i dde e ei e i ef bg ca ce a d hi , ea i e ha e a ig edge f a ie ie ) ea ha he e hif e ei e ae i ef i e ada i e a f ag i c e e ca ef , a d f ai ab e ada a i i i, a e ,a dc i g egi e (e.g., ei e a ea ), b i ef f ag i c e e if e ed i e d/ i ab dec i e i , e, b : i gh & ai f e highe ha ha , d e ei he a i de i ie , e ecia i ica a ea d ead i e e i b e e i e a deg ada i H e e , e ide ce a i dica e ha h e i g fa ei d i e e a d ca ci (i d ced ei he h ai g h e a di i b i f he a d) ca ead e ae e i e a deg ada i ; hi i i e i ab e, h e e -- de e d b he i e a c di i a d ag ic ac ice I a ca e, ide ead e ide ce ha h e i g fa ha a d ab efficienc ( ie d/ i ab time) -ic f he f d a a ce: ed e ea ed , ha e ie d/ i a d (if e i c . fa ( ee "I e ifica i " ec i , be ) i dde -fa ) ci e ' age cie , h a e i e e ed i 3. aba d i g a idde af e 1-3 ea a e e e beca e ie d/ i ab dec ea ed i fe i i i c ea ed eed a d i ec e Th , i a i i e i e( h e a de i- ecie a ig a ee ie e ), a d ed ce e (high di e i ) i ab e f ed i f c i f a d e ca i a ed d ei f Ha ) ef cie ie ba ed a , " i i i e," a d e i "cha ic" e h ce ic b e e , b e, faci i a e i ie e (e.g., eg i dde i i g e ga de gi a d ge g a he bega a a i g idde g- e i de ai he a e hi ica ed a d i dde ag i c i ecie i i i g a ge a , a d ec gi c a ed a a ef , i g 1. cce f ac ice e i e c i de ab e Ha ca eg i e 30 i e , 430 c i ge 2. ga de c ee 40 (>20 ica e f- fficie , he ce a ai ade) f H e e , a i g i 1950 , a h ha a a c i ce d b i d i g e ei e , e i a ce )f aa i , ec f e bee (I addi i , idde e e ac i g ag i c a Fi a e i g) , high a a d ie fa ag idde ha ( he ha fi e) d a h) i g e i d (1-3 8. he ce B e ca e ( he ha e 6. a i-c Phi i i e ) i a ed effec i g ec i ih gh b h a d productivit ( ie d/ i area) AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION Introduction J a hif f H-G e ag i c a e a adi i a i e ed a d c f i c ea i g c a " g e ," hi ica ge i ad ei e i ea d d c i e ag i c a e i e ed a i e i ab e e f i c ea i g edge a d ech gica abi i ie courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm edge a d ha bee 2/6 1/15/12 T S idden & Agricultural Intensification , ( H , , , ) ) , ( " , " : 1. M 2. ( . ., " 3. " , ") " ( ) Y , : Table 2. Con a be een e en i e and in en i e ag ic l Cha ac e i ic E en i e S F L P L H E H V P L H T S O F N L L C I E U U S G G Bo e " p ' T h eo M G o h (1965) R B of Ag ic l " In en i e S em . S I em al / ," ? al In en ifica ion = " B T he C ondi i on of A g i c l ' B ' I. En i onm en al lim i 3 a i om & 6 on pe of ag i c l (" "), & 2. P II. Inc ea ed p od c ion/a ea ): e a e ela i el "ela ic" (fle ible, b oad) 1. A , al = in en ifica ion , E em ( ) al l l ead 3. M o dec ea ed i el d / l abo : T ( ), courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm ), & ( ( ), 3/6 1/15/12 S idden & Agricultural Intensification ( ), ( ( . ., decreased ), " , , .) 4. T increased ( . ., " / / / ), ( III. Labor m inim i ation governs decision to intensif 5. P ' "L L ( 6. H , .S , E "; ) , , : .P ( ) / .N ( . ., ) ) ( . ., ) .C A , / de- B ( 6. ), , - , ( N 6. ) al l & (" "), -S T ' ?A 1. E 2. N ( 3 , - , ( 500 & 2 : .) , , .) 3. R Evidence re Boserup's Theor S H B ' , (" " 2 ); E , 1. P (1957) , . [see Table 3]: : 1.5 ( ; 6.5 , , 3M 12 0.86 , , / / // , 2.5 ; , ) / 2. C 17 = 255/ A , = 988/ .2, ; .2. Y ( H B 31 / . / . .2, , ) ( courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm (1972) ' : B ' -4/6 1/15/12 S idden & Agricultural Intensification c f b i di g e ace a d i iga i E ide ce ha de ai ca a dec ea ed fac ed i ) de a d ead de-i e ifica i : 1. K f a f W. Af ica adi i a i i ed hei e e e a d ag i c e a high a ea , he e he e e afe f ai d b e e g ; ha e high a i de i (ca. 300/ i.2); c ia e f ced eace a ed eK f a ig a e e ai , he e he e e ed i dde a ai de i i e ; i dde ga de = e d c i e e ac e, b a e age h e ead ha 7.7 ac e (5 i e a bi g a a ea h e a d ) [Ne i g 1977] 2 . F e ch c i i I d chi a a ed ea a f ei e i ef f ag i c ei ;e d fc e ca e 3. S i dde e h d e e e a e i ea da a ab da , e e h gh e e ca e f E S e e ide ce ab e: a e age ab i i ea i ia a a i ed hif i dde ag i c e fc ia e a i i N. a d S. A e ica he a d ea cie ie i h i e i e ( h -fa ) ag i c e ie ifica i ca be ee i graph a ea he f ig Table 4. Intensification in relation to labor time, population densit , and agricultural ield. Labor time (hr/da ) Population Densit (per km2) Yield (kcal/hectare) S idde ( =15) 5.4 23 3008 H e ag i c Fallow length 5.7 130 * 6.7 396 * Agricultural S stem g h e P e I i ga i h ag i c h e ( =4) ag i c AIe e ( =1) 6.9 550 * i a ag i c Id e e ( =7) e ( =1) 9.5 704 * 7.2 473 * i e ( =6) [da a f M i ge-K e a a (1980) & Ha e (1989); Lab e ; * = i i g da a; d e h d i e d e ac e, i e=" i ai , ide he h e," a e age f ad d. f ade, a e , e c. c e ad a] d ci adi c Conclusions Ma h ia .B e ia ie f ea i be ee H e e , ece a g e (e.g., Lee 1986, Riche he ca be ee a c e e a , e a ch a f a d a ic [see Diagram: Malthus+Boserup] ai a df d ee be di ec c e a . 1998, T e & A i 1996, W d 1998) ha e h ec e e ic e f h a a i -e i e I a ca e, b h a ache ffe aj i igh i ec a e i bei g he e ica efi ed a d e i ica e ed g & d a ic f ag i c ai e ifica i ,i i gh h ha References Cited B e , E e (1965) The C Ha e , Ra H f A g ic aG h. Chic ag : A di e. d B. (1989) Ti e, effic ie c , a d fi e , R be C. (2000) Lab Lee, R di i a d D. (1986) Ma h d cii a dB courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm a d ag ic e :ad i he A a a de e a ic ia e :B he i . I The ei e e . Re ea c h i Ec e i i ed. H ae f ai a Ec he :f ic A h g 11:43-85. g 28(2):251-277. adf Ma h , ed. D. C e a 5/6 1/15/12 S idden & Agricultural Intensification and R.S. Sc hofield, pp. 96-103. O fo d: Blac k ell. Hank , L c ien M. (1972) Ric e and Man: Agric ultural Ec olog in Southeas t As ia. Chic ago: Aldine. Mal h , Thoma Robe (1798) An Es s a on the Princ iple of Population. Minge-Kle ana, W anda (1980) Doe labo ime dec ea e i h ind 21:279-98. iali a ion? A Ne ing, Robe M. (1969) Ec o em in p oc e : a c ompa a i e D. Dama , pp 102-112. O a a: Na ional M e m of Canada. d of c hange in Pale m, Angel (1957) The ag ic l al ba i of e of ime-alloc a ion o We die . Current Anthropolog Af ic an oc ie ie . In Ec ologic al Es s a s , ed. ban c i ili a ion in Me oame ic a. Ric he on, Pe e J. and Robe Bo d (1998) Homage o Mal h , Ric a do, and Bo e p: o a d a gene al heo g o h, en i onmen al deg ada ion, ea l h, and po e . Human Ec olog Review 4:83-88. Spoone , B ian (1972) Population Growth: Anthropologic al Implic ations . Camb idge, MA: MIT P e of pop la ion, ec onomic . T ne , B. L. and M. Shajaa Ali (1996) Ind c ed in en ific a ion: ag ic l al c hange in Banglade h i h implic a ion fo Mal h Proc eedings of the National Ac adem of Sc ienc es , USA 93(25):14984-14991. W ood, Jame W . (1998) A heo of p eind Current Anthropolog 39:99-135. courses. ashington.edu/anth457/agintens.htm ial pop la ion d namic : demog aph , ec onom , and ell-being in Mal h ian and Bo e p. em . 6/6 ...
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