ANS3319C Final Exam ReviewFall2011

ANS3319C Final Exam ReviewFall2011 - ANS3319C Final ...

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Unformatted text preview: ANS3319C Final Exam Review Fall 2011 The final exam will consist of the following: 1. Lecture notes (30- 40% of Final Exam; approximately 60 pts): includes fetal growth & development, parturition, lactation, synchronization, reproductive technologies notes (Pages 142- 172). Take- home messages from labs for pregnancy detection, In vitro fertilization, and the synchronization & AI. Reading in book: Chpts 9 (pp 201- 212), 14 (pp 317- 325), 15 (pp 326- 345). 2. Three hour exams and quizzes & take home messages not listed above (60- 70% of final exam; approximately 140 pts). The material will come from the concepts covered on the three lecture exams and three quizzes. It will not be the same questions but the same material. It will also be beneficial to review all of the previous Take- home messages and worksheets from the start of the semester. Fetal Growth, Development, and Physiology. 1. What are the primary components of the fetal diet? 2. What structure in the fetus shunts blood away from the liver (except in pigs/horses)? 3. What structure in the fetus moves fetal blood from the right atrium to the left atrium of the heart? 4. What structure in the fetus shunts fetal blood away from the lungs to the descending aorta? 1. Relative to fetal development in the bovine, understand what significant physiological events of both fetal and placental development that occur during the three major stages of growth in the bovine model (Early 0 to 90; Mid 90 to 180; Late gestation 180 to 280). 2. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of early fetal growth? 3. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of mid to late fetal growth? 4. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of late fetal growth? 5. What stage of fetal development in the cow, do external stimuli have the least effect on fetal growth? Explain why. 6. What stage of fetal development in the cows, do external stimuli have the greatest effect on the fetus? Explain why. 7. Environmental factors such as excessive cold and warm temperatures can effect fetal growth and development. Please explain how these external stimuli affect physiological events associated with fetal development. 8. Why do increased fetal numbers in polytocous species amplify the effects of poor nutrition and(or) external environmental insults? What is the general order of tissue development of 4 major tissue layers in the developing fetus? Parturition 1. Be able to identify the behavioral and physiological signals associated with the onset of parturition. 2. Know where the signal that initiates parturition originates from and its significance in the parturition process. 3. Know the cascade of endocrine events and hormones that initiate parturition and expulsion of the fetus. 4. Know the three stages of parturition and the significant events associated with each respective stage. 5. Be able to define “dystocia” and possible causes of it. Lactation 1. Be able to define what “Uterine Involution“ is. 2. Know what the intervals are from parturition to uterine involution for farm and companion animals. 3. Know what steroid hormones stimulate development of the mammary gland in the postnatal animal and during what stages of development that usually have their greatest effects. 4. Understand what the relationship is between mammary gland development and fat deposition in prepubertal animals as it relates to future milk production of the animals. 5. What are the functional milk producing units are of the mammary gland. 6. Know the sequence of events including tactile, endocrine, and neural factors that stimulate milk ejection from the mammary gland. 7. Be able to define what the term “pressure atrophy” is in relation to milk production and the end of lactation. 8. Know the compositional differences between colostrum and regular milk. 9. What is the significance of colostrum relative to its function on animal well- being and what is the component part of colostrum that is associated with this function. Synchronization 1. What is the function of synchronizing animals? 2. Know what the functions and limitations are for prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and how it can be used in a synchronization program. 3. Please be able to explain the relationship between follicle development and why there is so much variation in how long it takes for estrus to occur after a PGF2α treatment in some animals. 4. Know how PGF2α can be used to induce premature parturition in farm animals, cats and dogs. 5. Know what the functions of GnRH are and how it can be used in an estrous synchronization program. Note this includes GnRH ate the start of a synchronization program and in conjunction with a timed- AI. 6. Know what the sources and functions of progestogens are and how they can be used in estrous synchronization programs. (Please note that progestogens do not stimulate CL development. They serve as a replacement for the CL when they are under the influence). 7. Understand that long term (> 7 d ) progestogen treatments have a negative effect on fertility and be able to explain what the reason is for this negative effect. (Please note: these effects typically occur in animals that either lack a CL or the CL loses its ability to produce progesterone during the progestogen treatment. Additionally, understand the association of low progesterone concentrations with LH secretion and the effect of LH secretion on follicle development.) 8. Know what the different synchronization programs are for farm animals and what the purpose of each component is in the synchronization programs. For example, what is the function of a CIDR, GnRH, and PGF2α are when an animal is on day 5 or 10 or 15 of the estrous cycle when it is started on the synchronization treatment. 9. Understand the functions of the component parts of the birth control pill used in humans. Additionally, know what the other types of short and long- term progestogens are that are used for birth control in humans. ...
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