ANS3319DiagnosticKitsFinalLab

ANS3319DiagnosticKitsFinalLab - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Lab Diagnostic Kits to Determine Reproductive Function Objectives 1) To provide an introduction to new technologies that can be used on farm to make diagnostic, therapeutic, and animal management decisions. 2) To provide hands on experience in utilizing the “Target” rapid progesterone kit. 3) To provide examples of how progesterone kits can be used in equine and canine reproductive management. Knowledge of an animal’s circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones can be used for on- farm management of several species. This is because of rapid advances in technology that allow for on-farm diagnostic kits to be economical and accurate. Milk progesterone kits are an example of this technology. They can be used in several ways such as confirming if estrus has or is close to occurring (low progesterone concentrations) and to determine if a cow has or does not have a functional corpus luteum, which can be used as a preliminary indicator of pregnancy. The cost of the tests range from approximately $4.00/animal (Target; BioMetallics, Princeton, NJ) to $2.75/animal (ACCUFIRM; Immucell, Portland ME). In order to understand how the Progesterone Kits test can be applied to reproductive management in the bovine, a review of progesterone concentrations in cattle in necessary. Progesterone, a steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum (CL), is produced by luteal cells that develop at the site of ovulation on the ovary. Progesterone acts on the uterine epithelium to initiate secretions, the uterine myometrium to promote the maintenance of pregnancy, and hypothalamic areas to inhibit GnRH release and the subsequent expression of estrus. The concentration of progesterone in the serum and milk reflects the activity of the CL. Progesterone concentrations increase the first 4 to 6 days following ovulation with maximum concentrations between days 10 to17 of the estrous cycle. If the cow becomes pregnant, the CL is maintained and progesterone secretion is maintained and progesterone remains high throughout pregnancy. If the cow does not become pregnant, the CL regresses and progesterone secretion decreases on days 18 or 19 of the estrous cycle allowing the cow to return to estrus on day 21 to 23. Therefore, testing for elevated progesterone concentrations 19 to 24 days after insemination will indicate pregnancy if the progesterone concentration is high. However, because of embryonic mortality and other reproductive disorders, confirmation of pregnancy by palpation will eventually be required to confirm the results. Progesterone can be measured in either the blood or milk samples to detect estrus or pregnancy. The progesterone kits are now available that measure progesterone on the enzyme linked
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ANS3319DiagnosticKitsFinalLab - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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