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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 1. Discuss Sherifs and later Asch's research on conformity. Sherifs study included the autokinetic study of norm formation. (Perceived movement of stationary point of light). The point of light was seen to move different distances. If it moves, how much? Converged to common norm of movement. Became relatively permanent. Aschs study included the line judgment study of majority influence. His study used 7-9 people, but only one is a real subject. He had people judging line lengths. He used confederates who at first told the truth, then they all began giving the same wrong answer. 2. Discuss Darley and Latane's research on bystander apathy. 3. Discuss Milgram's research on obedience. He tested obedience to authority by having a subject shock a learner (his confederate) with increasingly stronger shocks for errors. The confederate first complains, then screams, then ceases responding. His conclusions were that situational pressures can make people obey instructions that go against their belief systems. Milgrams use of deceit was highly problematic considering the risk of harm to his subjects. 4. Discuss Zimbardo's research on &quot;prison&quot; behavior. When people act brutally and harsh, we assume they are brutal and harsh. We neglect to consider the situation in which they have acted brutally and the power it had in shaping their behavior. Many behaviors become more understandable within particular contexts. 5. What are attitudes? Do attitudes guide our actions? Attitudes are the evaluation of objects, events, beliefs, feelings or ideas. They play an important role in how we evaluate and interact with other people. Components: cognitive component what you believe; affective how you feel about it; and behaviorial what you are willing to do about it. Attitudes are likely to predict behavior, to be consistent over time, and to be resistant to change. 6. How are attitudes formed? How are they changed? Attitudes are formed through experience and socialization-parents, teachers, peers, and others. It is shaped by social context and plays an important role in how we evaluate and interact with other people. It is changed through persuasion. In the elaboration likelihood model, persuasion leads to attitude change in 2 ways: central and peripheral route. 7. Why are we attracted to someone? Because we find people that look physically attractive more attractive than those who do not look as good. They are less likely to be perceived as criminals also. Attractive people are usually smart, happier, sociable, and successful. 8. How would you explain what happened at Abu Ghraib given the material covered in this chapter? Iraqi dedtainees were brutalized and humiliated by American soldiers. They were threatened with dogs beaten with brooms and chairs and forced to lie naked and stimulate oral sex. Pictures were posted on the internet. This case of Abu Ghraib forces us to consider questions about humanitys dark side....
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- Fall '09