Psyc. Study Guide 2

Psyc. Study Guide 2 - Chpt. 5 1. What are the four accepted...

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Chpt. 5 1. What are the four accepted criteria (from the lecture) that allow us to distinguish between sensory systems? Be able to apply these criteria to vision, audition, and ESP. There is a unique stimulus, a unique receptor, a unique nervous system, and a unique percept. Stimuli Receptor Pathway to brain Perception Vision To see an image, its light waves have to strike your eye. Light waves enter eyeball through the pupil, which determines how much light enters. Signals from left visual field go to right portion of each retina, to the optic nerve to optic chiasm, and then through right thalamus to right visual cortex. As a result, you see visual details. Audition To hear something, air molecules are displaced by sound waves These sound waves move through outer ear and make the eardrum vibrate These signals travel along the auditory nerve to the brain's primary auditory cortex As a result, you hear the sound. 2. How do we perceive color? Include a distinction between the trichromatic and the opponent-process theories. Color is determined by wavelengths of light, which activate certain types of cones. Trichromatic (red, blue, green) explains color blindness, is at the retina, and all color vision result of activity of the 3 kinds of cones. Opponent-process theory (red/green, blue/yellow, black/white) explains after-image, is at the thalamus, and ganglion input works in opposition. 3. Distinguish between the “what” and “where” visual system. Neurons in different parts of the brain tend to have different receptive fields; ventral and dorsal stream. 4. Distinguish between top-down and bottom-up processing. Top-down: a hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which information at higher levels of processing can also influence lower, “earlier” levels in the processing hierarchy. Expectations about what we will perceive. Bottom-up: a hierarchical model of pattern recognition in which data are relayed from one processing level to the next, always moving to a higher level of processing. Sensory info. 5. Discuss the data on (re)gaining vision. After regaining vision, a person may see the world in a different view or perception. Does perception return to the same way it was before? A person may be able to detect colors and motion more well than others after regaining sight. 6. What is pain? It is part of a warning system that stops you from continuing activities that may harm you. 7. Note the Gestalt principles of perceptual organization. It is the tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. The grouping principles are proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, and connectedness. 8. How do we perceive depth? Ability to see objects in 3 dimensions; allows us to judge distance. We are able to perceive depth in these two-dimensional patterns because the brain applies the same rules or mechanisms that it uses to work out the spatial relations between objects in the three-dimensional world. 9. Contrast sensation and perception.
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Psyc. Study Guide 2 - Chpt. 5 1. What are the four accepted...

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