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Unformatted text preview: Definitions: Cosmopolitanism- often liberals, see the individual as belonging to humanity universally rather than their respective community. o Key Thinkers: Rawles, Carens, Beitz, Nussbaum, Benhabib, Kukathas, Communitarian- view individuals as always being embedded within and constituted by society. o Key Thinkers: Walzer, Gandhi, Macedo, Mazzini Liberal- see the individual as a unit of analysis where the individual is understood as an isolated being that exists outside of society. o Key Thinkers: Rawls distributive justice (difference principle) o normative principles designed to guide the allocation of the benefits and burdens of economic activity o Rawles -- think about his ideas regarding fair equality of opportunity and the difference principle o All social primary goods - liberty and opportunity, income and wealth, and the bases of self-respect - are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution of any or all of these goods is to the advantage of the least favored. o Proposes 2 principles: 1.1. (Liberty) Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all 1.2. (Wealth) Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity. o the possibility of earning greater income will bring forth greater productive effort. This will increase the total wealth of the economy and, the wealth of the least advantaged o Veil of Ignorance: a decision making process free of personal bias It means that everyone should pretend that they don't know anything about their life. They don't know their economic status, their gender, their race. Nothing. (veil of ignorance) And then, they are told to make laws and distribute wealth. When no one knows what position they will end up in, they are more likely to treat everyone fairly. If you are fearful that you might be poor, you make sure that there is a higher standard of living for low income households. leads to 2 principles PART 3 - NATIONALISM AND POST-COLONIALISM, WESTERN AND NON- WESTERN Mazzini: On the Duties of Mankind (Cosmopolitan view, national application) There is no true association except among equals that the aim of existence is not to be more or less happy, but to make ourselves and others more virtuous; that to struggle against injustice and error (wherever they exist), in the name and for the benefit of their brothers, is not only a right but a Duty Mazzini iterates how people can only be truly free through being a part of a sovereign state, and this idea has relatedness to national self-determination....
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2012 for the course GVPT 200S taught by Professor Boyd during the Fall '11 term at Maryland.
- Fall '11
- The Republic