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Psychology Midterm II

Psychology Midterm II - Psychology Midterm II LEARNING...

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Psychology Midterm II 11/11/10 LEARNING Habituation = a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus organisms learn not to respond to familiar stimuli, so they can conserve energy and attend to more important stimuli Learning is measure by changes in performance Classical Conditioning -- an organism learns to associate two stimuli (e.g., a song and a pleasant event), such that one stimulus (the song) comes to elicit a response (feeling happy) that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus (the pleasant event) A. Ivan Pavlov and his dog Russian, late 1800s To study digestion, Pavlov presented food to dogs and measured their salivary response He noticed that with repeated testing, the dogs began to salivate before the food was presented Ring bell dogs would salivate B. Phobias Classical conditioning plays role in phobias Intense fear completely incapacitate when come into contact with object i.e. dad tells daughter that they’ll die on bridge after a few weeks, daughter afraid without him saying anything C. Fetishism Sexually aroused by a certain object i.e. shoes, underwear Classical conditioning plays part i.e. underwear on lampshade = orgasm so next time look for underwear for same feeling Neutral stimulus (shoes, underwear), turns into conditioned stimulus with time D. Advertising Heavy use of classical conditioning Pairing stimulus that produces UCR with product i.e. girl in bikini and beer Physiological release of pleasure (UCR) occurs when seeing product, so likely to feel good when seeing product in store and buy it Celebrity advertising, successful ppl CS turns into UCS after a long time = second order conditioning i.e. $ not naturally attractive, but with time, it becomes second nature E. Acquisition Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and response (UCR) = unlearned - Know how to do this naturally, organism hardwired to do this - i.e. UCS = food, UCR = salivation Conditioned stimulus (CS) and response (CR) = learned
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- i.e. CS = bell, CR = salivation UCS must be paired multiple times with CS to establish a strong CR White ceilings should make you think of sex, but you don’t be too common Neutral stimulus, to UCS needs to be novel, unusual and intense Ways to classically condition: - Simultaneous conditioning CS and UCS happens at the same time - Short delayed conditioning Most effective way to implement classic conditioning!!! CS happens, then UCS introduced and happening at same time - Trace conditioning UCS with memory of CS F. Extinction = unlearning CS How? Repeatedly present CS without UCS - Ring bell without giving food over and over, and dog will eventually stop salivating G. Spontaneous Recovery Response comes back even after extinction, but weaker Repeat extinction, wait a few days, then test and repeat this process until response completely gone Difficulty to eliminate depends on how strongly learned H. Stimulus Discrimination operant response will occur to one antecedent
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