CH5Notes - Chapter Five Liquids and Solids CHEM 1211K Fall...

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Chapter Five Liquids and Solids CHEM 1211K Fall 2010 1
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Objectives Identify the primary intermolecular forces in a sample. Use knowledge of intermolecular forces to deduce information about physical properties including boiling point, melting point, vapor pressure, viscosity, and surface tension. Classify solids as molecular, metallic, or network. Identify unit cell configurations and make calculations for them. Understanding ionic structures 2
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Key Ideas The condensed phases of matter result from attractive intermolecular forces. When atoms, ions, and molecules do not have enough energy to escape from their neighbors they form solids with their atoms in characteristic arrangements. They form liquids when they have enough energy to move past their neighbors but not enough to escape from them entirely. 3
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Why is it important? This chapter shows how atomic and molecular properties are related to the structure and properties of bulk solids and liquids, continuing the process begin in chapter 4 for gases. Because scientists design new materials by considering how the properties and interactions of individual particles give rise to bulk properties, formulating the materials of tomorrow will require an understanding of these relationships. 4
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Intermolecular forces are stronger in liquids and solids than in gases. These are the electrostatic forces of attraction between molecules. 5 The Origin of Intermolecular Forces (5.1)
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The Origin of Intermolecular Forces (5.1) 6 Figure 5.1
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The Origin of Intermolecular Forces (5.1) Types of intermolecular interactions 7
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8 Intra molecular forces are MUCH stronger than any of the inter molecular forces. ionic bond > covalent bond >>> ion-ion > hydrogen bonding > ion-dipole > dipole-dipole > dipole-induced dipole >> London dispersion forces The Origin of Intermolecular Forces (5.1)
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The Origin of Intermolecular Forces (5.1) Section summary: Condensed phases form when attractive forces between molecules pull them together. Repulsions dominate at short separations. 9
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Ion-Dipole Forces (5.2) Ion-dipole interactions occur between fully charged ions and any polar molecule. The most common example occurs when ionic solids dissolve in water and are hydrated . 10 Figure 5.2
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Both the size and charge of an ion control the extent of hydration. Strength of ion-dipole interaction is greater the smaller the value of r and the greater the charge on the ion. Small, highly charged ions are often hydrated in compounds. 11 Ion-Dipole Forces (5.2)
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Example: Which cation of each pair would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Li + or Rb + Ba 2+ or K + 12 Ion-Dipole Forces (5.2)
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Section summary: Ion-dipole interactions are strong for small, highly charged ion. One consequence is that small, highly charged
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course CHEM 1211 taught by Professor Ford during the Fall '09 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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CH5Notes - Chapter Five Liquids and Solids CHEM 1211K Fall...

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