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wun2k3 - Duke University Department of Physics Physics 392...

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Unformatted text preview: Duke University Department of Physics Physics 392 Fall Term 2011 WUN2K FOR LECTURE 3 These are notes summarizing the main concepts you need to understand and be able to apply. • Particles lose energy in matter by a number of different mechanisms depending on the particle and the target. Although some behavior can be treated analytically, some is better modeled with Monte Carlo (although complex detector simulations often make use of analytic un- derstanding). • Energy loss of “heavy” ( e.g. muon, proton, pion, α ) particles in matter is mostly atomic electron ionization energy loss, and is well described by the Bethe-Bloch equation, which treats the energy loss as a mean of many tiny collisions between the projectile and target electrons. The “stopping power” dE/dx has the form- dE dx = (constants) ρz 2 Z A 1 β 2 " 1 2 ln " 2 m e c 2 β 2 γ 2 T max I 2 #- β 2- δ 2 # , where z is the charge of the incident particle, Z , A are charge and mass of the target nuclei, ρ is the density, m e is the mass of the electron, c , β , γ are the usual relativistic kinematic quantities, T max is the maximum...
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