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W01-01_SysOrganization+Ch01

W01-01_SysOrganization+Ch01 - Computer Science 230 Computer...

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Computer Science 230: Computer Architecture and Assembly Language Background: Computer Organization and Systems
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What Exactly are? Computer architecture: Computer organization: deals with the functional behavior of a computer system as viewed by a deals with structural relationships that are not visible to the programmer programmer e.g. the size of a data type e.g. clock frequency or the size of the physical – 32 bits to an integer memory There are Many Levels at which to consider architecture: highest level Î where the user is running programs lowest level Î circuits
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Levels of Machine Organization High level Languages, User Applications Assembly Language, Machine Code Control (e.g. datapath, bus, microprogramming) Functional Units (e.g. Memory, ALU, peripherals) Transistors, Wires, Gates
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A Typical Computer System (Computer case source http://www baber com/cases/mpe md14 silver htm (Computer case source http://www.baber.com/cases/mpe_md14_silver.htm. Motherboard source ftp://ftp.tyan.com/img_mobo/i_s2895.tif)
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What is a microprocessor? A processor is built from a large number f i t t d i it 8 bit 16 bit 32 bit : of integrated circuits. 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit : refers to number of bits manipulated in one operation (usually the A microprocessor is a processor packaged as a single IC (Integrated Circuit = chip). size of the registers). It requires external memory to execute (Integrated Circuit chip). programs. It cannot directly interface to I/O A microcomputer is a computer that uses a i it devices, thus peripheral chips are needed. microprocessor as its CPU.
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The Motherboard • An AMD Opteron 200 based motherboard. Source: Courtesy Tyan Computer Corp. (USA).
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The von Neumann Model Arithmetic and Logic Unit Processor Input Unit Output Unit Control Unit 1 Input Memory 1. Input 2. Output 3. ALU 4. Control Unit Unit 5. Memory unit 1-14
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The System Bus Model: Refining the von Neumann model CPU (ALU and control), memory, and an input/output unit. Communication is handled by a shared pathway called the s stem b s system bus , o data bus, address bus, and control bus CPU (ALU, Registers MEMORY I/O (Input and and Control) Output) Data Bus Address Bus em Bus Control Bus Syste
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What’s Inside the CPU?
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