The Inter-War Years.pdf - The Inter-War Years Station 1 The Middle East 1 How does the Pan-Arabism movement emerge a The Pan-Arab movement is a

The Inter-War Years.pdf - The Inter-War Years Station 1 The...

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The Inter-War Years Station 1: The Middle East 1. How does the Pan-Arabism movement emerge? a. The Pan-Arab movement is a nationalist notion of cultural and political unity among Arab countries. It is the concept that all Arabs form one nation and should be politically united in one Arab state. Its origins lie in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when increased literacy led to a cultural and literary renaissance among Arabs of the Middle East. This contributed to political agitation and led to the independence of most Arab states from the Ottoman Empire and from the European powers. An important event was the founding in 1943 of the Ba ʿ th Party, which formed branches in several countries and became the ruling party in Syria and Iraq. Another was the founding of the Arab League in 1945. Pan-Arabism’s most charismatic and effective proponent was Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser. 2. What does the Balfour Declaration say? a. The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population. Britain’s acknowledgment and support of Zionism, and Zionism’s focus on establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine emerged from growing concerns about the direction of World War I. The motives behind this decision were various: First, a genuine belief in the righteousness of the Zionist cause was held by Lloyd George (British Prime Minister) and many other influential leaders. Additionally, Britain’s leaders hoped that a formal declaration in favor of Zionism would help gain Jewish support for the Allies in neutral countries, in the United States and especially in Russia, where the anti-Semitic czarist government had just been overthrown with the help of Russia’s Jewish population. The influence of the Balfour Declaration on the course of post-war events was immediate: According to the “mandate” system
created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Britain was entrusted with the temporary administration of Palestine, with the understanding that it would work on behalf of both its Jewish and Arab inhabitants. The area’s instability led Britain to delay making a decision on Palestine’s future. But in the aftermath of World War II and the terrors of the Holocaust, growing international support for Zionism led to the official declaration in 1948 of the nation of Israel. 3. Name the greatest accomplishments of the Turkish National Movement after World War I a. They established an independent turkish nation. 4. What are some of the major reforms made my Mustafa Kemal as leader of Turkey? a. Kemal Atatürk, (Turkish: “Kemal, Father of Turks”) original name Mustafa Kemal, also called Mustafa Kemal Pa a, (born 1881, Salonika [now Thessaloníki], Greece—died November 10, 1938, Istanbul, Turkey), soldier, statesman, and reformer who was the founder and first president (1923–38) of the Republic of Turkey. He modernized the country’s legal and educational systems

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