Birla 1 Industrialization Questions 1.Edward Jenner was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. In the 18th century, smallpox was widespread in Europe, claiming an estimated 400,000 lives each year. Researchers estimate that between 20% and 60% of all infected persons and 80% of infected children died from the disease. Survivors often had some degree of permanent scarring with a number of individuals losing their lips, nose, or ear tissue. Smallpox also caused corneal scarring and was responsible for one-third of all blindness. Edward Jenner was able to create a vaccine by inoculating people cowpox, a relative of smallpox. Those who got sick with this infection later did not get smallpox. Jenner’s work represented the first scientific attempt to control an infectious disease by the deliberate use of vaccination. He is one of the reasons people now do not die of disease as much. Due to him, life expectancy has grown.