Psyc_Chp_6_and_13_Outline - Ace Arroyo Psych 100 CHAPTER 6...

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Ace Arroyo, Psych 100 CHAPTER 6 & 13 SUMMARY OUTLINE LEARNING AND PERSONALITY Chapter 6- Learning A. Learning B. Conditioning I. Classical Conditioning A. Pavlov’s (Accidental) Discovery 1. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936); Russian Physiologist 2. Classical Conditioning a. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS); (Meat Powder) b. Unconditioned Response (UR); (Salivation) c. Neutral Stimulus (NS); (Tone) d. Conditioned Stimulus (CS); (Tone) e. Condition Response (CR) (Salivation) B. Watson’s Contribution to Classical Conditioning 1. John B. Watson a. Credited for founding behaviorism b. Emphasized strictly observable behaviors b. “Little Albert” study i. White rat accompanied by loud bang ii. Conditioned Emotional Responses iii. Led to powerful tools to eliminate phobias C. Basic Principles: Fine-Tuning Classical Conditioning 1. Acquisition- Basic classical conditioning a. Delayed Conditioning b. Simultaneous Conditioning c. Trace Conditioning d. Backward Conditioning
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2. Generalization and Discrimination a. Stimulus generalization b. Stimulus discrimination 3. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery a. Extinction- CS w/out UCS, weakens CR b. Spontaneous Recovery- Sudden reappearance of extinguished CR 4. Higher-Order Conditioning a. NS becomes CS by repeated pairings w/ previous CS II. Operant Conditioning A. Operant Conditioning B. Reinforcement C. Punishment D. Thorndike and Skinner’s Contributions: The Beginnings of Operant Conditioning 1. Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) a. Pioneer of operant conditioning b. 1 st to examine behaviors & consequences c. Law of Effect 2. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) E. Basic Principles: Understanding Operant Conditioning 1. Reinforcement-Strengthening a Response a. Primary Reinforcers-increase probability of response, biological need b. Secondary Reinforcers- increase probability of response, learned value 2. Positive and negative reinforcement a. Positive reinforcement-adding stimulus strengthens response, recurrence more likely b. Negative reinforcement-taking away stimulus, which strengthens response, recurrence more likely F. Why negative Reinforcement Is Not Punishment
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