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Unformatted text preview: Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 1
The Nature and Scope of
The Healthy Workplace Awards recognize organizations for their commitment to programs and policies that enhance employee health and well-being.
Evaluators consider companies for the state-level awards across ﬁve areas:
employee involvement, work–life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, and employee recognition.The top 10 companies are
selected from a pool of more than 180 previous state-level winners.
“It is important to highlight those companies’ efforts in this era of business challenges and workplace pressures,” says Russ Newman, the executive
director for professional practice at the American Psychological Association.
“Many organizations are struggling to stem the forces that are whittling away
at their employees’ morale, productivity, and health,” says Newman. “These
Best practices honorees are setting an example by creating strong, vibrant organizational cultures that contribute to both employee health and well-being
and the company’s bottom line.”
Three of the winners are:
Liberty Precision Industries. Based in New York, this machinebuilding company helps its employees develop new, versatile job skills.
Liberty employees work with a consulting psychologist to identify speciﬁc areas in which they can improve job performance.
South Carolina Bank and Trust. The company’s employee expectation survey has cut turnover rates in half by allowing employees to
Source: Adapted from Mark Greer, “A Happier, Healthier Workplace,” Monitor on Psychology, December 2004,
pp. 28–29. OBJECTIVES
After reading and studying this
chapter and doing the exercises, you should be able to: 1 Explain what organizational
behavior means. 2 Summarize the research methods of organizational behavior. 3 Identify the potential advantages of organizational behavior knowledge. 4 Explain key events in the history of organizational behavior. 5 Understand how a person develops organizational behavior
skills. CHAPTER 1 anonymously voice concerns about the workplace. Management listens: It has added
employee recognition programs and new stock purchase options.
Sysco Food Services of New Mexico. The company partnered with the University,
of New Mexico to develop a coaching skills class that taught all executives, managers,
and supervisors skills such as collaborative decision-making, employee development, and
team-building. Employees report less stress and increased job satisfaction. 2 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Now Ask Yourself: In what way does the information just presented illustrate that paying careful attention to human behavior in the workplace
is an important part of an organization’s being successful? The purpose of
this book is to present systematic knowledge about people and organizations that
can be used to enhance individual and organizational effectiveness. Managers and
potential managers are the most likely to apply this information.Yet the same information is important for other workers, including professionals, sales representatives,
customer service specialists, and technical specialists.
In the modern organization, workers at every level do some of the work that
was formerly the sole domain of managers.Team members, for example, are often
expected to motivate and train each other. One reason organizations get by with
fewer managers than previously is that workers themselves are now expected
to manage themselves to some extent. Self-management of this type includes
the team scheduling its own work and making recommendations for quality
In this chapter, we introduce organizational behavior from several perspectives.
We will explain the meaning of the term, see why organizational behavior is useful,
and take a brief glance at its history. After describing how to develop skills in organizational behavior, we present a framework for understanding the ﬁeld.An important goal in studying organizational behavior is to be able to make sense of any
organization in which you are placed. For example, you might be able to answer the
question,“What is going on here from a human standpoint?” 1
Explain what organizational behavior means. THE MEANING AND RESEARCH METHODS
OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
A starting point in understanding the potential contribution of organizational behavior is to know the meaning of the term. It is also important to be familiar with
how information about organizational behavior is acquired. The Meaning of Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in the workplace,
of the interaction between people and the organization, and of the organization
itself.1 The major goals of organizational behavior are to explain, predict, and control behavior.
Explanation refers to describing the underlying reasons or process by which phenomena occur. For example, an understanding of leadership theory would explain
why one person is a more effective leader than another. The same theory would
help predict which people (such as those having charismatic qualities) are likely
to be effective as leaders. Leadership theory could also be useful in controlling The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 (or inﬂuencing) people. One leadership theory, for example, contends that group
members are more likely to be satisﬁed and productive when the leader establishes
good relationships with them. 3 Data Collection and Research Methods
in Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 To explain, predict, and control behavior, organizational behavior specialists must
collect information systematically and conduct research.The purpose of collecting
data is to conduct research. 2 Methods of Data Collection
Three frequently used methods of collecting data in organizational behavior are surveys, interviews, and direct observation of behavior.The survey questionnaire used by
a specialist in organizational behavior is prepared rigorously. Before preparing a ﬁnal
questionnaire, a scientist collects relevant facts and generates hypotheses (educated
guesses) about important issues to explore.The questionnaire is carefully designed to
measure relevant issues about the topic being surveyed.Among the surveys included
in this textbook is the Creative Personality Test in Chapter 5.
Research about human behavior in the workplace relies heavily on the interview
as a method of data collection. Even when a questionnaire is the primary method of
data collection, interviews are usually used to obtain ideas for survey questions.
Interviews are also helpful in uncovering explanations about phenomena and furnishing leads for further inquiry.Another advantage of interviews is that a skilled interviewer can probe for additional information. One disadvantage of the interview
method is that skilled interviewers are required.
Observers placing themselves in the work environment collect much information about organizational behavior. Systematic observations are then made about the
phenomena under study. One concern about this method is that the people under
observation may perform atypically when they know they are being observed. A
variation of systematic observation is participant observation. The observer becomes a
member of the group about which he or she collects information. For example, to
study stress experienced by customer service representatives, a researcher might
work temporarily in a customer service center. Research Methods
Four widely used research methods of organizational behavior are case studies,
laboratory experiments, field experiments (or studies), and meta-analyses.
Although cases are a popular teaching method, they are often looked on negatively as a method of conducting research. Case information is usually collected
by an observer recording impressions in his or her mind or on a notepad. People
have a tendency to attend to information specifically related to their own interests or needs. Despite this subjective element in the case method, cases provide
a wealth of information that can be used to explain what is happening in a
An experiment is the most rigorous research method.The essence of conducting
an experiment is making sure that the variable being modiﬁed (the independent
variable) inﬂuences the results. The independent variable (such as a motivational
technique) is thought to inﬂuence the dependent variable (such as productivity).
The dependent variable is also known as the criterion (or measure). Summarize the research methods of
behavior. CHAPTER 1 A major characteristic of the laboratory experiment is that the conditions are supposedly under the experimenter’s control.A group of people might be brought into
a room to study the effects of stress on problem-solving ability.The stressor the experiment introduces is an electronic beeping noise. In a ﬁeld setting, assuming the
experiment was permitted, the experimenter might be unaware of what other stressors the subjects faced at that time. A key concern about laboratory experiments,
however, is that their results might not apply to the outside world.
Field experiments (or studies) attempt to apply the experimental method to reallife situations.Variables can be controlled more readily in the laboratory than in the
ﬁeld, but information obtained in the ﬁeld is often more relevant. An example of a
ﬁeld experiment would be investigating whether giving employees more power
would have an effect on their motivation to produce a high quantity of work.The
independent variable would be empowerment, while the dependent variable would
be quantity of work.
A widely used approach to reaching conclusions about behavior is to combine
the results of a large number of studies. A meta-analysis is a quantitative or statistical review of the literature on a particular subject, and is also an examination of a
range of studies for the purpose of reaching a combined result or best estimate. A
meta-analysis is therefore a review of studies, combining their quantitative information.You can also view meta-analysis as a quantitative review of the literature on a
particular subject. For example, a researcher might want to combine the results of
100 different studies about the job performance consequences of group decision
making before reaching a conclusion. Many of the research findings presented
throughout this book are based on meta-analysis rather than on the results of a
An important use of meta-analysis in organizational behavior is to understand
how certain factors, referred to as moderator variables, inﬂuence the results of studies.2
For example, in the experiment mentioned previously about stress and problemsolving ability, a moderator variable might be the amount of stress a study participant faces in personal life. Individuals who enter the experiment already stressed
might be inﬂuenced more negatively by the electronic beeping noise.
Meta-analysis gives the impression of being scientiﬁc and reliable because so
much information is assimilated, using sophisticated statistical tools. One might
argue, however, that it is better to perform one rigorous study than to analyze many
poorly conducted studies. 4 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 3
Identify the potential
advantages of organizational behavior
knowledge. HOW YOU CAN BENEFIT FROM STUDYING
Studying organizational behavior can enhance your effectiveness as a manager or
professional. Yet the benefits from studying organizational behavior are not as
immediately apparent as those derived from the study of functional ﬁelds such as accounting, marketing, purchasing, and information systems. Such ﬁelds constitute the
content of managerial and professional work. Organizational behavior, in contrast,
relates to the process of conducting such work. An exception may be seen with
organizational behavior specialists whose content, or functional knowledge, deals
with organizational behavior concepts and methods.
Visualize an information systems specialist who has extremely limited interpersonal skills in communicating, motivating, and resolving conﬂict. She will have a
difﬁcult time applying her technical expertise to organizational problems. She will The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 therefore fail in serving her clients because she lacks the ability to use effective interpersonal processes. In contrast, if the same information systems specialist had solid
interpersonal skills, she could do a better job of serving her clients. (She would probably also hold onto her job longer.)
Studying and learning about organizational behavior offers four key advantages: (1) skill development, (2) personal growth, (3) enhancement of organizational and individual effectiveness, and (4) sharpening and refinement of
common sense. Skill Development
An essential requirement for entering into, surviving, and succeeding in the modern
workplace is to have the appropriate skills. A person needs both skills related to his
or her discipline and generic skills such as problem solving and dealing with people.
The study of organizational behavior contributes directly to these generic skills.
Later in this chapter, we provide details about how one develops skills related to
Organizational behavior skills have gained in importance in the modern workplace. A relevant example is that many CIOs (chief information ofﬁcers) now need
information technology professionals to get more involved in business concerns, to
interact with other departments, and to communicate more effectively with colleagues. Soft skills such as business acumen, communication, leadership, and project
management become more important as specialists such as information technology
professionals get more involved in the overall business.A survey of 1420 CIOs found
that 53 percent of these managers offered information technology employees training in areas outside of technology.3
The distinction between soft skills and hard skills is relevant for understanding
the importance of skill development in organizational behavior. Soft skills are generally interpersonal skills such as motivating others, communicating, and adapting to
people of different cultures. Hard skills are generally technical skills, such as information technology and job design. Some skills, such as those involved with decision
making, have a mixture of soft and hard components.To make good decisions you
have to be creative and imaginative (perhaps a soft skill), yet you also have to weigh
evidence carefully (most likely a hard skill). The aforementioned survey classiﬁed
business acumen as a soft skill, yet some business strategy specialists would classify such
knowledge as a hard skill. Personal Growth through Insight into Human Behavior
As explained by Robert P. Vecchio, an important reason for studying organizational
behavior is the personal fulfillment gained from understanding others.4 Understanding fellow human beings can also lead to enhanced self-knowledge and selfinsight. For example, while studying what motivates others, you may gain an
understanding of what motivates you. Participating in the experiential exercises and
self-assessments included in this textbook provides another vehicle for personal
growth.A case in point is the study of leadership in Chapter 11.You will be invited
to take a self-quiz about readiness to assume a leadership role. Taking the test and
reviewing the results will give you insight into the types of attitudes and behaviors
you need to function as a leader.
Personal growth, through understanding others and self-insight, is meritorious in and of itself, and it also has practical applications. Managerial and professional CHAPTER 1 Log on to http://www.
infotrac. Perform a
search on “soft skills”
and ﬁnd out what speciﬁc skills employers
look for in “wellrounded” job
applicants. 5 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 6 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior positions require sharp insights into the minds of others for tasks such as selecting
people for jobs and assignments, communicating, and motivating. Sales representatives who can size up the needs of prospects and customers have a competitive
advantage. Another value of understanding others and self-insight is that
they contribute to continuous learning because the needs of others change over
time, and so might your needs. For example, people are more strongly motivated
by the prospects of job security today than they might have been in years
past. Continuous downsizings and outsourcing have enhanced the value of job
security. Enhancement of Organizational and Individual Effectiveness
A major beneﬁt from studying organizational behavior is that it provides information that can be applied to organizational problems.An important goal of organizational behavior is to improve organizational effectiveness—the extent to which
an organization is productive and satisﬁes the demands of its interested parties. Each
chapter of this book contains information that is applied directly or indirectly by
many organizations. One visible example is the widespread use of teams in the
workplace. Certainly, organizational behavior specialists did not invent teams. We
suspect even prehistoric people organized some of their hunting forays by teams.
Nevertheless, the conclusions of organizational behavior researchers facilitated the
shift to teams in organizations.
The accompanying box presents fresh evidence about the link between treating
employees well and a ﬁrm’s ﬁnancial performance. The argument is particularly
interesting because it is presented by a ﬁnancial analyst.
Why does paying more attention to the human element improve business performance? One explanation Jeffrey Pfeffer offers is that people work harder when
they have greater control over their work environment and when they are encouraged by peer pressure from teammates. Even more advantage comes from
people working smarter. People-oriented management practices enable workers
to use their wisdom and to receive appropriate training. Another contribution to
improved performance stems from eliminating positions that focus primarily on
watching and controlling workers.5 Much of organizational behavior deals with
people-oriented management practices. Many of these practices will be described
in later chapters.
Understanding organizational behavior also improves organizational effectiveness because it uncovers factors that contribute to or hinder effective performance.
Among these many factors are employee motivation, personality factors, and communication barriers. Furthermore, an advanced understanding of people is a major
contributor to managerial success.This is especially true because so much of a manager’s job involves accomplishing tasks through people.
Organizational behavior also contributes insights and skills that can enhance
individual effectiveness. If a person develops knowledge about subjects such as
improved interpersonal communication, conﬂict resolution, and teamwork, he or
she will become more effective. A speciﬁc example is that knowledge about organizational behavior can contribute to high performance. Executive coach Lisa
Parker observes that managers sometimes neglect to give encouragement and
recognition to good performers because these workers are already performing
well.Yet if these same solid performers were given more encouragement, coaching in the form of advice, and recognition, they will often develop into superstars
(high performers).6 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 7 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR In Action Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 Equity Analyst Evaluates the Importance of Treating Employees Well
I have been an equity research analyst for more
than 15 years, the past 10 devoted to analyzing
consumer service stocks, including restaurants,
hotels, casinos, and cruise companies.These are
labor-intensive sectors.As part of my analyses, I
have quizzed senior management on the steps
they take to manage labor costs. It has been conventional wisdom that reducing wages and beneﬁts improves proﬁt margins, earnings, and even
stock price because, generally, investors reward
companies that cut these expenses. In reality, it’s
not that simple.
I don’t think enough investors have asked
the more important question: Can companies
be even more successful by focusing on optimizing each employee’s contribution, rather
than simply looking for ways to reduce the cost
of employing them? Perhaps, we as investors,
need to be more conscious of how these people who clean our hotel rooms, cook our meals,
and deal our cards are treated and paid, rather
than simply looking to see whether the expense can be cut further. Staff motivation,
although difﬁcult to quantify, should be part
of the investment analysis.
At the risk of stating the obvious, it is apparent that treating employees with respect and
paying them fairly goes a long way to establishing an efﬁcient and creative organization. Most
corporate executives say that they do this and
that they don’t put shareholder interests ahead
of their workers. But, a signiﬁcant number of
companies who say they subscribe to this philosophy don’t live up to it.
This is surprising because the service companies that go that extra mile often derive tangible beneﬁt from adopting these practices. They produce a higher quality of customer service, which becomes a competitive advantage
for the company.
Working in a busy coffee bar can be a
tough job, but Starbucks Corporation is at the
forefront of trying to treat its workers with respect. Howard Shultz, who has led Starbucks
through more than 18 years of growth, has set
the tone from the top and made it clear that his
company is not going to leave its people behind. For instance, employees who complete a
minimum of 20 hours of work or more a week
could become eligible for health beneﬁts and
may receive a stock option grant.There is a ﬁnancial beneﬁt: Starbucks’ employee turnover is
toward the bottom of the industry range and its
service levels are high.And since the IPO [initial public offering] in June 1992, the share of
Starbucks have risen an eye-popping 3500%.
Treating employees well is certainly not the
only reason that the companies alluded to here
have outperformed.The strength of their products, the skills of management, and market
conditions have also had a signiﬁcant impact. I
believe that investors should look beyond costcutting initiatives and ask whether the company
is getting the very best out of its people. In
other words, is it well managed?
1. What in your mind constitutes being
treated well by an employer?
2. What is the tie-in between this opinion
piece and organizational behavior?
Source: Steven Kent, “Happy Workers Are the Best Workers,” The
Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2005, p. A20. Sharpening and Reﬁning of Common Sense
A manager commented after reading through several chapters of an organizational
behavior textbook, “Why should I study this ﬁeld? It’s just common sense. My job
involves dealing with people, and you can’t learn that through a book.” Many other
students of organizational behavior share the sentiments expressed by this manager. CHAPTER 1 However logical such an opinion might sound, common sense is not an adequate
substitute for knowledge about organizational behavior. This knowledge sharpens
and enlarges the domain for common sense. It markedly reduces the amount of time
necessary to learn important behavior knowledge and skills, much as law school reduces the amount of time that a person in a previous era would have had to spend
as a law apprentice.
You may know through common sense that giving recognition to people is
generally an effective method of motivating them toward higher performance. By
studying organizational behavior, however, you might learn that recognition should
be given frequently but not every time somebody attains high performance. (You
speciﬁcally learn about intermittent rewards in your study of motivation.) You might
also learn that the type of recognition you give should be tailored to the individual’s
personality and preferences. For example, some people like ﬂamboyant praise, while
others prefer praise focused tightly on the merits of their work. Formal knowledge
thus enhances your effectiveness.
Organizational behavior knowledge also reﬁnes common sense by challenging
you to reexamine generally accepted ideas that may be only partially true. One such
idea is that inactivity is an effective way to reduce stress from a hectic schedule. In
reality, some hard-driving people ﬁnd inactivity more stressful than activity. For them,
lying on a beach for a week might trigger intense chest pains. For these people,
diversionary activity—such as doing yard work—is more relaxing than inactivity. 8 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 4
Explain key events in
the history of organizational behavior. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The history of organizational behavior is rooted in the behavioral approach to
management, or the belief that speciﬁc attention to workers’ needs creates greater
satisfaction and productivity. In contrast to the largely technical emphasis of scientiﬁc management, a common theme of the behavioral approach is the need to focus
on people. Scientiﬁc management did not ignore people altogether, and in some
ways it contributed to organizational behavior. For example, scientiﬁc management
heavily emphasized financial incentives to increase productivity. Yet the general
thrust centered on performing work in a highly efﬁcient manner.
Organizational behavior is also heavily inﬂuenced by sociology in its study of
group behavior, organization structure, diversity, and culture. In addition, the insights
of cultural anthropologists contribute to an understanding of organizational culture
(the values and customs of a ﬁrm). In recent years, several companies have hired anthropologists to help them cultivate the right organizational culture. Organizational
behavior also gains insights from political science toward understanding the distribution of power in organizations.
Five key developments in the history of organizational behavior are the classical
approach to management, the Hawthorne studies, the human relations movement,
the contingency approach to management and leadership, and positive organizational behavior. The Classical Approach to Management
The study of management became more systematized and formalized as a by-product
of the Industrial Revolution that took place from the 1700s through the 1900s.
Managing these factories created the need for systems that could deal with large
numbers of people performing repetitive work. The classical approach to management encompassed scientific management and administrative management, and
contributed some insights into understanding workplace behavior. Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior The focus of scientiﬁc management was the application of scientiﬁc methods to increase an individual worker’s productivity.An example would be assembling
a lawn mower with the least number of wasted motions and steps. Frederick W.
Taylor, considered the father of scientiﬁc management, was an engineer by background. He used scientiﬁc analysis and experiments to increase worker output. A
key part of his system was to convert individuals into the equivalent of machines
parts by assigning them speciﬁc, repetitive tasks. Other key contributors to scientiﬁc
management were Henry Gantt and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. (Gantt charts for
scheduling activities are still used today.)
Taylor tackled the dilemma of management wanting to maximize proﬁts, and
workers wanting to maximize possible wages. Disputes between management and
labor centered on what each side saw as incompatible goals.Taylor believed that his
system of scientiﬁc management could help both sides attain their goals, providing
each would undergo a “mental revolution.” Each side had to conquer its antagonistic view of the other. Taylor believed that management and labor should regard
proﬁt as the result of cooperation between the two parties. Management and labor
each needed the other to attain their goals.7
Scientiﬁc management is based on four principles, all of which direct behavior
in the workplace:8
Careful study of the jobs to develop standard work practices, with standardization of the tools workers use in their jobs
Selection of each worker using scientiﬁc principles of personnel selection
Obtainment of cooperation between management and workers to ensure that
work is accomplished according to standard procedures
Plans and task assignments developed by managers, which workers should carry out
According to these principles of scientiﬁc management, there is a division of
work between managers and workers. Managers plan and design work, assign tasks,
set performance goals, and make time schedules. Managers also select and train
workers to do the tasks according to standard procedures, and give the workers feedback about their performance.Workers are rewarded with ﬁnancial incentives when
they increase their productivity.9
Administrative management was concerned primarily with the management and structure of organizations.The French businessman Henri Fayol and the
German scholar Max Weber were the main contributors to administrative management. Based on his practical experience, Fayol developed 14 management principles
through which management engaged in planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Weber suggested that bureaucracy is the best form of
organization because it makes highly efﬁcient management practices possible.
The core of management knowledge lies within the classical school. Its key
contributions come from studying management from the framework of planning,
organizing, leading, and controlling. The major strength of the classical school was
providing a systematic way of measuring people and work that still exists in some
form today. For example, United Parcel Service (UPS) carefully measures the output and work approaches of the delivery workers.The major limitation of the classical school is that it sometimes ignores differences among people and situations. In
addition, some of the classical principles for developing an organization are not well
suited to fast-changing situations. •
• The Hawthorne Studies
Many scholars pinpoint the Hawthorne studies (1923–1933) as the true beginning
of the behavioral approach to management.10 Without the insights gleaned from CHAPTER 1 9 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 10 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior these studies, organizational behavior might not have emerged as a discipline. The
purpose of the ﬁrst study conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric (an
AT&T subsidiary) was to determine the effect of changes in lighting on productivity. In this study, workers were divided into an experimental group and a control
group. Lighting conditions for the experimental group varied in intensity from 24
to 46 to 70 foot-candles.The lighting for the control group remained constant.
As expected, the experimental group’s output increased with each increase in
light intensity. But unexpectedly, the performance of the control group also changed.
The production of the control group increased at about the same rate as that of the
experimental group. Later, the lighting in the experimental group’s work area was reduced.This group’s output continued to increase, as did that of the control group. A
decline in the productivity of the control group ﬁnally did occur, but only when the
intensity of the light was roughly the same as moonlight. Clearly, the researchers reasoned, something other than illumination caused the changes in productivity.
The relay assembly test room produced similar results over a 6-year period. In this
case, relationships among rest, fatigue, and productivity were examined. First, normal
productivity was established with no formal rest periods and a 48-hour week. Rest
periods of varying length and frequency were then introduced. Productivity increased
as the frequency and length of rest periods increased. Finally, the original conditions
were reinstated.The return to the original conditions, however, did not result in the
expected productivity drop. Instead, productivity remained at its usual high level.
One interpretation of these results was that the workers involved in the experiment
enjoyed being the center of attention.Workers reacted positively because management
cared about them.The phenomenon is referred to as the Hawthorne effect. It is the
tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention because they
respond to the demands of the situation. In a research setting, this could mean that the
people in an experimental group perform better simply because they are participating
in an experiment. In a work setting, this could mean that employees perform better
when they are part of any program—whether or not that program is valuable.
The Hawthorne studies also produced other ﬁndings that served as the foundation for the human relations movement.Although many of these ﬁndings may seem
obvious today, documenting them reinforced what many managers believed to be
true. Key ﬁndings included the following:
1. Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed in influencing
workers to achieve high levels of output.
2. Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging.
3. Leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundly inﬂuence employee
satisfaction and performance.
4. Personal problems can strongly inﬂuence worker productivity.
5. Effective communication with workers is critical to managerial success.
6. Any factor inﬂuencing employee behavior is embedded in a social system. For
instance, to understand the impact of pay on performance, you have to understand the climate in the work group and the leadership style of the manager.
Furthermore, work groups provide mutual support and may resist management
schemes to increase output.
Despite the contributions of the Hawthorne studies, they have been criticized
as lacking scientiﬁc rigor.The most interesting criticism contends that the workers
in the control group were receiving feedback on their performance. Simultaneously,
they were being paid more as they produced more.The dual impact of feedback and
differential rewards produced the surprising results—not the Hawthorne effect.11 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Human Relations Movement
The human relations movement is based on the belief that there is an important
link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity.Workers bring various social needs to the job. In performing their jobs, workers typically become members
of several work groups. Often these groups provide satisfaction of some of the workers’ needs. Satisﬁed workers, it was argued, would be more productive workers.The
challenge for managers was to recognize workers’ needs and the powerful inﬂuence
that work groups can have on individual and organizational productivity.
A second major theme of the human relations movement is a strong belief in
workers’ capabilities. Given the proper working environment, virtually all workers
would be highly productive. Signiﬁcant amounts of cooperation between workers
and managers prove critical to achieving high levels of productivity. A cornerstone
of the human relations movement is Douglas McGregor’s analysis of the assumptions managers make about human nature, delineated in two theories.12 Theory X is
a set of traditional assumptions about people. Managers who hold these assumptions
are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities. They believe that people dislike work,
seek to avoid responsibility, are not ambitious, and must be supervised closely.
McGregor urged managers to challenge these assumptions about human nature
because they may be untrue in most circumstances.
Theory Y is an alternative, and optimistic, set of assumptions.These assumptions
include the ideas that people do accept responsibility, can exercise self-control, have
the capacity to innovate, and consider work to be as natural as rest or play. McGregor
argued that these assumptions accurately describe human nature in far more situations than most managers believe. He therefore proposed that these assumptions
should guide managerial practice. The Contingency Approach
Beginning in the early 1960s, organizational behavior specialists emphasized the difﬁculties in ﬁnding universal principles of managing people that can be applied in all
situations. To make effective use of knowledge about human behavior, one must
understand which factors in a particular situation are most inﬂuential.
The contingency approach to management emphasizes that there is no
one best way to manage people or work. A method that leads to high productivity
or morale in one situation may not achieve the same results in another.The contingency approach is derived from the study of leadership styles. Experienced managers
and leaders know that not all workers respond in the exact same way to identical
leadership initiatives. A recurring example is that well-motivated, competent team
members require less supervision than those who are poorly motivated and less
competent. In Chapter 11, we present more information about the contingency approach to leadership.
The strength of the contingency approach is that it encourages managers and
professionals to examine individual and situational differences before deciding on a
course of action. Its major problem is that it is often used as an excuse for not
acquiring formal knowledge about organizational behavior and management. If
management depends on the situation, why study organizational behavior or management? The answer, of course, is that a formal study of management helps a manager decide which factors are relevant in particular situations. In the leadership
example just cited, the relevant factors are the skills and motivation of the group
members. CHAPTER 1 11 CHAPTER 1 Positive Organizational Behavior 12 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior An emerging movement in organization behavior is a focus on what is right with
people. The human relations movement was a start in this direction. However, the
movement toward focusing on strengths rather than weaknesses stems directly from
positive psychology, with its emphasis on what is right with people, such as love, work,
and play. Fred Luthans deﬁnes positive organizational behavior as the study and
application of human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be
measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement.13
The criteria of being measurable and developmental are signiﬁcant because they
separate positive organizational behavior from simply giving pep talks and inspirational speeches to employees. An example would be the concept of self-efficacy,
or having confidence in performing a specific task. A worker might be asked
how conﬁdent he or she is to perform a difﬁcult task, such as evaluating the risk of
a particular investment. If his or her self-efﬁcacy is not strong enough, additional
experience and training might enhance the person’s self-efﬁcacy.
An everyday application of positive organizational behavior would be for a
manager to focus on employee strengths rather than weaknesses. It is well accepted
that encouraging a worker to emphasize strengths will lead to much more performance improvement than attempting to patch weaknesses. Assume that a person is
talented in interpersonal relationships but weak in quantitative analysis.This person
is likely to be more productive by further developing strengths in a position calling
for relationship building. The less productive approach would be overcoming the
weakness in quantitative analysis and attempting to become a ﬁnancial specialist.
(The point here is not that working on weakness is fruitless, but that capitalizing on
strengths has a bigger potential payoff.)
In general, positive organizational behavior focuses on developing human
strengths, making people more resilient, and cultivating extraordinary individuals,
work units, and organizations.14 All of this is accomplished by careful attention to
well-developed principles and research, rather than simply cheering people on. 5
Understand how a person develops organizational behavior skills. SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Developing skill in organizational behavior means learning to work effectively with
individuals, groups, and organizational forces. The greater one’s responsibility, the
more one is expected to work well at these three levels.
The distinction between hard skills and soft skills mentioned previously is not
necessarily the distinction between difﬁcult and easy. Hard skills are not better than
soft skills, and vice versa. A chief executive ofﬁcer (CEO) may have a difﬁcult job,
yet she uses mostly soft skills such as leading others and bringing about organizational change. In contrast, an entry-level ﬁnancial analyst might use hard skills in
preparing an analysis. His job, however, might be considered easier than the CEO’s.
Notice also that possessing soft skills often helps a person earn hard money.
Developing most organizational behavior skills is more complex than developing
a structured skill such as conducting a physical inventory or arranging an e-mail address book. Nevertheless, you can develop organizational behavior skills by reading
this textbook and doing the exercises.The book follows a general learning model:
1. Conceptual knowledge and behavioral guidelines. Each chapter in this book presents
research-based information about organizational behavior, including a section
titled “Implications for Managerial Practice.” The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 Learner Uses
1. Conceptual knowledge and
2. Conceptual information and
3. Experiential exercises
4. Feedback on skill
5. Frequent practice CHAPTER 1 Exhibit 1-1
Behavior 2. Conceptual information and examples. These include brief descriptions of organizational behavior in action, generally featuring managers and leaders.
3. Experiential exercises. The book provides an opportunity for practice and personalization through cases and self-assessment exercises. Self-quizzes are included
because they are an effective method of helping you personalize the information, assisting you in linking conceptual information to your own situation. For
example, you will read about creative problem solving and also complete a quiz
4. Feedback on skill utilization, or performance, from others. Feedback exercises appear at
several places in the book. Implementing organizational behavior skills outside
the classroom will provide additional opportunities for feedback.
5. Frequent practice. Readers who look for opportunities to practice organizational
behavior skills outside the classroom will acquire skills more quickly. An important example is the development of creative thinking skills.The person who looks
for imaginative solutions to problems regularly is much more likely to become a
more creative thinker, and be ready to think creatively at a given moment. Contrast this with the individual who participates in a creative-thinking exercise
once, and then attempts the skill a year later when the need is urgent. As in any
ﬁeld, frequently practicing a skill the right way leads to skill improvement.
As you work through the book, keep the ﬁve-part learning model in mind.To
help visualize this basic learning model, refer to Exhibit 1-1.
Developing organizational behavior skills is also important because it contributes
to your lifelong learning. A major theme of the modern organization is that to stay
competitive, a worker has to keep learning and developing.A relevant example is that
as work organizations have become more culturally diverse, it is important to keep
developing one’s skills in working effectively with people from different cultures. A FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING
A challenge in studying organizational behavior is that it lacks the clear-cut boundaries of subjects such as cell biology or French. Some writers in the ﬁeld consider
organizational behavior to be the entire practice of management. Others focus organizational behavior much more on the human element and its interplay with the
total organization. Such is the orientation of this textbook. Exhibit 1-2 presents a
basic framework for studying organizational behavior.The framework is simultaneously a listing of the contents of Chapters 2 through 17.
Proceeding from left to right, the foundation of organizational behavior is
the study of individual behavior, presented in Chapters 2 though 7. No group or organization is so powerful that the qualities of individual members do not count. A Model for Developing
skills can be developed
by using a systematic
approach. 13 CHAPTER 1 14 Exhibit 1-2 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 A Framework of Studying
To better understand
recognize that behavior at
the individual, group, and
organizational system and
global environment levels
is linked. The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Individual
Individual differences, mental,
ability, and personality
Learning, perception, and attribution
Attitudes, values, and ethics
Individual decision making
Foundation concepts of motivation
Motivational methods and programs Group and Interpersonal Relations
Teams and teamwork
Leadership in organizations
Power, politics, and influence
Conflict, stress, and well-being The Organizational System
and the Global Environment
Organizational structure and design
Organizational change and
Cultural diversity and international
organizational behavior Visualize a famous athletic team with a winning history. Many fans contend that the
spirit and tradition of the team, rather than individual capabilities, carry it through
to victories against tough opponents.Yet if the team has a couple of poor recruiting
years or loses a key coach, it may lose more frequently.
Key factors in understanding how individuals function include individual differences, mental ability and personality, learning, perception, attitudes, values, attribution, and ethics. It is also important to understand individual decision making,
creativity, foundation concepts of motivation, and motivational programs.
As suggested by the arrows in Exhibit 1-2, the various levels of study are interconnected. Understanding how individuals behave contributes to an understanding
of groups and interpersonal relations, the second level of the framework.This will be
studied in Chapters 8 through 13. The topics include communication, group
dynamics (how groups operate), teams and teamwork, and leadership. Although
leadership relates directly to interpersonal relationships, top-level leaders are also
concerned with inﬂuencing the entire organization. The study of power, politics,
and inﬂuence is closely related to leadership. Conﬂict, stress, and well-being might
be classiﬁed at the individual level, yet these processes are heavily dependent on
interaction with others.
Finally, the third level of analysis in the study of organizational behavior is the
organizational system and the global environment, as presented in Chapters 14
through 17. Components of the organizational and environmental level studied here
include organizational structure and design, organizational culture, organizational
change and knowledge management, cultural diversity, and international (or crosscultural) organizational behavior. International organizational behavior could just as
well have been studied before the other topics. Our position, however, is that everything else a person learns about organizational behavior contributes to an understanding of cross-cultural relations in organizations.
The connecting arrows in Exhibit 1-2 emphasize the interrelatedness of
processes and topics at the three levels. Motivation provides a clear example. A The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 person’s motivational level is dependent on his or her individual makeup as well as
work-group inﬂuences and the organizational culture. Some work groups and organizational cultures energize new members because of their highly charged atmospheres. The arrows also run in the other direction. Highly motivated workers, for
example, improve work-group performance, contribute to effective interpersonal
relationships, and enhance the organizational culture. 15 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERIAL PRACTICE
Each of the following chapters includes a brief section explaining how managers
and professionals can use selected information to enhance managerial practice. Our
ﬁrst lesson is the most comprehensive and perhaps the most important: Managers
should raise their level of awareness about the availability of organizational behavior
information. Before making decisions in dealing with people in a given situation,
pause to search for systematic information about people and organizations. For
example, if you need to resolve conﬂict, ﬁrst review information about conﬂict resolution, such as that presented in Chapter 13.The payoff could be improved management of conﬂict.
Another key implication from this chapter is to search for strengths and talents
in others and yourself, and then capitalize on these strengths as a way of improving
organizational and individual effectiveness. Weaknesses should not be ignored, but
capitalizing on strengths has a bigger potential payoff. CVS Stands for Consumer Value Store
com/management/dubrin and watch the video for
this chapter. In what
ways do you think the
Program helps achieve
good person–job ﬁt at
CVS? SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS
1 Explain what organizational behavior means.
Organizational behavior is the study of human
behavior in the workplace, the interaction between
people and the organization, and the organization
itself. Organizational behavior relates to the process,
rather than the content, of managerial work. 2 Summarize the research methods of organizational
Three frequently used methods of collecting data on
organizational behavior are surveys (typically questionnaires), interviews, and direct observation of
behavior. Four widely used research methods are
case studies, laboratory experiments, field experiments, and meta-analysis. The essence of conducting
an experiment is to make sure that the independent
variable inﬂuences the results. 3 Identify the potential advantages of organizational
Knowledge about organizational behavior offers four
key advantages: skill development, personal growth,
the enhancement of organizational and personal
effectiveness, and sharpening and refinement of common sense. Substantial evidence has accumulated that substantiates that emphasizing the human
factor increases productivity and gives a ﬁrm a competitive advantage. Organizational behavior skills
have increased in importance in the modern workplace, partly because of the prevalence of diverse
teams. 4 Explain key events in the history of organizational
The history of organizational behavior parallels the
behavioral approach to management, including contributions from classical management. The classical
approach to management encompasses both scientific and administrative management, and contributes some insights into understanding workplace
behavior. The behavioral approach formally began
with the Hawthorne studies. Among the major implications of these studies were that leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundly inﬂuence
employee satisfaction and performance. The human
relations movement and the contingency approach
to management are also key developments in
the history of organizational behavior. The human CHAPTER 1 relations movement was based on the belief that
there is an important link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity. Analysis of Theory X
versus Theory Y (pessimistic versus optimistic assumptions about people) is a key aspect of the movement. The contingency approach emphasizes taking
into account individual and situational differences in
managing people. An emerging movement in the
field is positive organizational behavior, which focuses on measurable human resource strengths and
capacities. 16 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 5 Understand how a person develops organizational
Organizational behavior skills can be developed by following a general learning model that includes the use
of conceptual knowledge and behavioral guidelines,
experiential exercises, feedback on skill utilization, and
frequent practice. The framework for studying organizational behavior in this textbook emphasizes the interconnectedness of three levels of information: individuals, groups and interpersonal relations, and the
organizational system and the global environment. KEY TERMS AND PHRASES
Organizational Behavior, 2
The study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction between people and the organization, and the organization itself. Hawthorne Effect, 10
The tendency of people to behave differently when they
receive attention because they respond to the demands of
the situation. Meta-Analysis, 4
A quantitative or statistical review of the literature on a particular subject; an examination of a range of studies for the
purpose of reaching a combined result or best estimate. Human Relations Movement, 11
An approach to dealing with workers based on the belief
that there is an important link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity. Organizational Effectiveness, 6
The extent to which an organization is productive and
satisﬁes the demands of its interested parties. Contingency Approach to Management, 11
The viewpoint that there is no one best way to manage
people or work but that the best way depends on certain
situational factors. Behavioral Approach to Management, 8
The belief that specific attention to the workers’ needs
creates greater satisfaction and productivity.
Scientiﬁc Management, 9
The application of scientiﬁc methods to increase workers’
productivity. Positive Organizational Behavior, 12
The study and application of human resource strengths and
psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement. Administrative Management, 9
A school of management thought concerned primarily with
how organizations should be structured and managed. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES
3. 4. Find somebody in your network who works for, or
has worked for, Starbucks (including you) to comment on employee treatment by management.
What contributions might organizational behavior
knowledge make in the Internet age?
What does it mean to say that organizational behavior relates to the process—as opposed to the
content—of a manager’s job?
Give a possible explanation why meta-analysis is
considered so important in evaluating the effectiveness of prescription drugs. 5. 6. 7. Work by yourself, or form a small brainstorming group, to furnish an example from
physical science in which common sense proves to
Have you ever worked for a manager who held Theory X assumptions about people? What was the
impact of his or her assumptions on your motivation
Get together with a few classmates. Develop a list of
strengths of group members that you think if further
developed would be career assets, and explain why
these strengths might be assets. The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 CASE PROBLEM: The Hands-On CEO of JetBlue
The ﬁrst thing you notice when getting on board is the
new-car smell. “No wonder,” says the ﬂight attendant,
hearing your remark. She points to a metal plaque on
the doorway rim that says the Airbus A320 was delivered 1 month ago. Other notable features are the free
cable on your personal video screen and the leather
seats. Flight attendants are trained on how to give service with a retro ﬂair. All attendants have to learn how to
strut proudly, as if there were an imaginary string
between their chin and belly button.
JetBlue attendants have a sense of fun about their
jobs, and the can-do pilot informs over the public address system that yes, there’s a major storm coming into
the New York City area but that we’ll get there on time
anyway. And the plane and passengers do. So the traveler wonders. Is this for real? Or maybe the right question is, “How long can they keep up this nonsense?”
JetBlue was rated highest in customer satisfaction of all
U.S. airlines in Condé Nast Traveler magazine’s 2005
Business Travel Awards—the fourth time in 6 years.
Just as discontent with airlines was mounting in
2000, JetBlue Airlines came into being with a new attitude, new planes, and a new concept of service. What
perfect takeoff timing for a carrier that is trying to bring
pleasure and even style back to ﬂying. JetBlue is lowprice and all-coach, like Southwest Airlines, yet hip and
sassy, like Virgin Atlantic. In the air, JetBlue offers the
plush seats and satellite TV; on the ground it offers a
high level of efﬁciency.
JetBlue has achieved an impressive proﬁt picture.
Of the hundreds of start-ups since the industry was
deregulated in 1978, only Southwest Airlines and
JetBlue have sustained their success. For 2005, JetBlue
had a net income of approximately $60 million for
$1.3 billion in revenue, with over 80 percent of seats
Credit CEO David Neeleman, who founded the ﬁrm
at age 41, for piloting JetBlue past the early disasters
that typically befall fledgling carriers. For starters,
Neeleman raised $160 million from investors—almost
triple what other new airline entrants have managed to
obtain. The hefty sum is insurance against any unforeseen cash crunch.
Consumers are usually concerned about the safety
issue with “new” airlines that fly 25-year-old planes.
JetBlue ﬂies only factory-fresh, state-of-the-art A320s.
Neeleman has fitted each with 162 seats—versus the A320’s 180-seat maximum. Flyers are ecstatic about
the JetBlue experience. It begins with pricing, which is
competitive and doesn’t torture consumers with requirements like Saturday-night stays. JetBlue is attracting
business travelers, the industry’s most valuable passengers and the source of up to 50 percent of its proﬁts.
A JetBlue spokesperson said, “We see our customers as the same ones who can afford more but shop
at Target because their stuff is hip but inexpensive.”
That kind of thinking drove decisions like JetBlue’s
choice of leather seats instead of less expensive cloth.
“It’s a nicer look, a better feel,” says Neeleman, in full
salesman mode. Nevertheless, as JetBlue became several years old, their sections of airline terminals, such as
JFK (serving New York City), had the same worn-down
look with cracked leather seats as other airlines.
Neeleman obsesses over keeping employees happy,
and with good reason. Airline watchers say JetBlue’s
ability to stay union-free is critical to its survival as a lowcost carrier. The industry’s labor-relations record is weak.
“But if there is anyone who realizes the importance of
treating their employees right, it’s the management team
at JetBlue,” says airline analyst Holly Hegeman.
JetBlue employees get profit-sharing checks,
amounting to 17 percent of their salary in recent years.
Also, 84 percent of JetBlue employees participate in a
company stock purchase program, in which they can
buy stock at a 15 percent discount.
On September 21, 2005, JetBlue Flight 292 in Los
Angeles narrowly escaped a crash when its front landing gear stuck sideways, so the plane had to land while
metal scraped the runway instead of the wheels rolling
in their intended manner. The day after the mishap
Neeleman released a statement acknowledging the
problem, and thanking everyone concerned for their assistance and emotional support. Neeleman’s public
statement included these words:
The crew of Flight 292 has asked us to communicate their appreciation to the 140 customers on
board for their cooperation, and they are also
grateful for the messages of support sent to JetBlue by thousands of people. The crew looks forward to returning to their families and loved ones,
and to their normal lives as quickly as possible.
Neeleman is one of seven siblings, and has nine
children of his own. He has been dreaming about
(continued) 17 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 18 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CASE PROBLEM (Continued)
airplanes since he saw a red one on his second birthday
cake. A serial travel entrepreneur, he has launched four
airlines, including Morris Air and Canada’s WestJet
Airlines, with each one being more successful than the
last. Neeleman, with a strong interest in information
technology, developed the computer system that
became the basis for e-ticketing.
Neeleman notes that despite heavy competition,
JetBlue’s proﬁt margins are the highest in the industry.
He attributes part of the company’s success to selecting
the right people, which is especially important because
an airline is a people business. “We have a saying at JetBlue that you’re either serving a customer or serving
someone who is serving a customer.”
An example of the selection process at JetBlue was
an applicant pilot who was furious about being rejected.
The pilot telephoned Neeleman and explained that he
had 15,000 hours of ﬂying experience. Neeleman then
spoke to the interviewer, who said that she asked the
pilot, “You’ve ﬂown for 15,000 hours, tell us one thing
that you’ve done besides just sitting there and ﬂying the
airplane.” He couldn’t come up with a single example.
He retorted, “What do you mean by that? I’m a pilot, and
that’s what I do.” The interviewer explained that the
pilot was not somebody JetBlue wants in the company. To manage the company, Neeleman emphasizes
the quality of supervisors. The company has one
supervisor for every 80 employees. Neeleman tells the
supervisors, “You can know 80 people. You can know
who they’re married to, you can know who their kids
are, and what their challenges are.” In this way
JetBlue employees know there is a personal touch to
1. In what way does Neeleman demonstrate an
understanding of organizational behavior?
2. So what’s wrong with a pilot staying in the cockpit
in terms of being a contributor to a people-oriented
3. How else might Neeleman make use of organizational behavior knowledge to improve the chances
of JetBlue Airlines staying successful?
Sources: Sally B. Donnelly, “Blue Skies: Is Jet Blue the Next Great Airline—
Or Just a Little Too Good to Be True?, July 30, 2001 Time, pp. 24–27; Eric
Gillin, “JetBlue Soars Past Proﬁt Targets,” TheStreet.com, July 25, 2002;
(http://www.thestreet.com/pf/tech/earnings/10034305.html); “On the Record:
David Neeleman, JetBlue Airways, http://www.sfgate.com, September 12,
2004; JetBlue Airways Voted Best in Class and Best Value for Cost . . .
Again,” www.primezone.com, September 29, 2005; “Statement by JetBlue
CEO David Neeleman Regarding Flight 292, http://www.primezone.com,
September 22, 2005. ENDNOTES
1. Gregory Morehead and Ricky W. Grifﬁn, Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations, 4th ed. (Boston:
Houghton Mifﬂin, 1995), p. 3.
2. Piers D. Steel and John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, “Comparing
Meta-Analytic Techniques under Realistic Conditions,” Journal
of Applied Psychology, February 2002, p. 107.
3. Jon Surmacz, “The Hard Truth: Soft Skills Matter,” CIO Magazine, January 15, 2005, p. 1.
4. Robert P. Vecchio, Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts,
6th ed. (Mason, OH: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2003),
5. Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation (Boston: Harvard Business
School Press, 1998), p. 59.
6. Cited in Anne Fisher, “Turn Star Employees into Superstars,”
Fortune, December 13, 2004, p. 70.
7. Joseph E. Champoux, Organizational Behavior: Essential
Tenets (Mason, OH: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2003),
pp. 11–12; Edward G. Wertheim, “Historical Background of
Organizational Behavior,” http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/
introd/history.htm, accessed March 16, 2006. 8. Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
(New York: W. W. Norton, 1911), p. 9.
9. Champoux, Organizational Behavior, p. 12.
10. E. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson, Management and the
Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939);
Wertheim, pp. 2–3.
11. H. McIlvaine Parsons, “What Caused the Hawthorne Effect? A
Scientiﬁc Detective Story,” Administration & Society, November
1978, pp. 259–283.
12. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1960), pp. 33–57.
13. Fred Luthans, “Positive Organizational Behavior: Developing
and Managing Psychological Strengths,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 59.
14. Kim Cameron, Jane Dutton, Rover Quinn, and Gretchen Spreitzer,
“What Is Positive Organizational Scholarship?” http://www.
bus.umich.edu/Positive/WhatisPOS/, accessed September 29,
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