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Unformatted text preview: Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 1 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior The Healthy Workplace Awards recognize organizations for their commitment to programs and policies that enhance employee health and well-being. Evaluators consider companies for the state-level awards across five areas: employee involvement, work–life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, and employee recognition.The top 10 companies are selected from a pool of more than 180 previous state-level winners. “It is important to highlight those companies’ efforts in this era of business challenges and workplace pressures,” says Russ Newman, the executive director for professional practice at the American Psychological Association. “Many organizations are struggling to stem the forces that are whittling away at their employees’ morale, productivity, and health,” says Newman. “These Best practices honorees are setting an example by creating strong, vibrant organizational cultures that contribute to both employee health and well-being and the company’s bottom line.” Three of the winners are: Liberty Precision Industries. Based in New York, this machinebuilding company helps its employees develop new, versatile job skills. Liberty employees work with a consulting psychologist to identify specific areas in which they can improve job performance. South Carolina Bank and Trust. The company’s employee expectation survey has cut turnover rates in half by allowing employees to Source: Adapted from Mark Greer, “A Happier, Healthier Workplace,” Monitor on Psychology, December 2004, pp. 28–29. OBJECTIVES After reading and studying this chapter and doing the exercises, you should be able to: 1 Explain what organizational behavior means. 2 Summarize the research methods of organizational behavior. 3 Identify the potential advantages of organizational behavior knowledge. 4 Explain key events in the history of organizational behavior. 5 Understand how a person develops organizational behavior skills. CHAPTER 1 anonymously voice concerns about the workplace. Management listens: It has added employee recognition programs and new stock purchase options. Sysco Food Services of New Mexico. The company partnered with the University, of New Mexico to develop a coaching skills class that taught all executives, managers, and supervisors skills such as collaborative decision-making, employee development, and team-building. Employees report less stress and increased job satisfaction. 2 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Now Ask Yourself: In what way does the information just presented illustrate that paying careful attention to human behavior in the workplace is an important part of an organization’s being successful? The purpose of this book is to present systematic knowledge about people and organizations that can be used to enhance individual and organizational effectiveness. Managers and potential managers are the most likely to apply this information.Yet the same information is important for other workers, including professionals, sales representatives, customer service specialists, and technical specialists. In the modern organization, workers at every level do some of the work that was formerly the sole domain of managers.Team members, for example, are often expected to motivate and train each other. One reason organizations get by with fewer managers than previously is that workers themselves are now expected to manage themselves to some extent. Self-management of this type includes the team scheduling its own work and making recommendations for quality improvement. In this chapter, we introduce organizational behavior from several perspectives. We will explain the meaning of the term, see why organizational behavior is useful, and take a brief glance at its history. After describing how to develop skills in organizational behavior, we present a framework for understanding the field.An important goal in studying organizational behavior is to be able to make sense of any organization in which you are placed. For example, you might be able to answer the question,“What is going on here from a human standpoint?” 1 Explain what organizational behavior means. THE MEANING AND RESEARCH METHODS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR A starting point in understanding the potential contribution of organizational behavior is to know the meaning of the term. It is also important to be familiar with how information about organizational behavior is acquired. The Meaning of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in the workplace, of the interaction between people and the organization, and of the organization itself.1 The major goals of organizational behavior are to explain, predict, and control behavior. Explanation refers to describing the underlying reasons or process by which phenomena occur. For example, an understanding of leadership theory would explain why one person is a more effective leader than another. The same theory would help predict which people (such as those having charismatic qualities) are likely to be effective as leaders. Leadership theory could also be useful in controlling The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 (or influencing) people. One leadership theory, for example, contends that group members are more likely to be satisfied and productive when the leader establishes good relationships with them. 3 Data Collection and Research Methods in Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 To explain, predict, and control behavior, organizational behavior specialists must collect information systematically and conduct research.The purpose of collecting data is to conduct research. 2 Methods of Data Collection Three frequently used methods of collecting data in organizational behavior are surveys, interviews, and direct observation of behavior.The survey questionnaire used by a specialist in organizational behavior is prepared rigorously. Before preparing a final questionnaire, a scientist collects relevant facts and generates hypotheses (educated guesses) about important issues to explore.The questionnaire is carefully designed to measure relevant issues about the topic being surveyed.Among the surveys included in this textbook is the Creative Personality Test in Chapter 5. Research about human behavior in the workplace relies heavily on the interview as a method of data collection. Even when a questionnaire is the primary method of data collection, interviews are usually used to obtain ideas for survey questions. Interviews are also helpful in uncovering explanations about phenomena and furnishing leads for further inquiry.Another advantage of interviews is that a skilled interviewer can probe for additional information. One disadvantage of the interview method is that skilled interviewers are required. Observers placing themselves in the work environment collect much information about organizational behavior. Systematic observations are then made about the phenomena under study. One concern about this method is that the people under observation may perform atypically when they know they are being observed. A variation of systematic observation is participant observation. The observer becomes a member of the group about which he or she collects information. For example, to study stress experienced by customer service representatives, a researcher might work temporarily in a customer service center. Research Methods Four widely used research methods of organizational behavior are case studies, laboratory experiments, field experiments (or studies), and meta-analyses. Although cases are a popular teaching method, they are often looked on negatively as a method of conducting research. Case information is usually collected by an observer recording impressions in his or her mind or on a notepad. People have a tendency to attend to information specifically related to their own interests or needs. Despite this subjective element in the case method, cases provide a wealth of information that can be used to explain what is happening in a given situation. An experiment is the most rigorous research method.The essence of conducting an experiment is making sure that the variable being modified (the independent variable) influences the results. The independent variable (such as a motivational technique) is thought to influence the dependent variable (such as productivity). The dependent variable is also known as the criterion (or measure). Summarize the research methods of organizational behavior. CHAPTER 1 A major characteristic of the laboratory experiment is that the conditions are supposedly under the experimenter’s control.A group of people might be brought into a room to study the effects of stress on problem-solving ability.The stressor the experiment introduces is an electronic beeping noise. In a field setting, assuming the experiment was permitted, the experimenter might be unaware of what other stressors the subjects faced at that time. A key concern about laboratory experiments, however, is that their results might not apply to the outside world. Field experiments (or studies) attempt to apply the experimental method to reallife situations.Variables can be controlled more readily in the laboratory than in the field, but information obtained in the field is often more relevant. An example of a field experiment would be investigating whether giving employees more power would have an effect on their motivation to produce a high quantity of work.The independent variable would be empowerment, while the dependent variable would be quantity of work. A widely used approach to reaching conclusions about behavior is to combine the results of a large number of studies. A meta-analysis is a quantitative or statistical review of the literature on a particular subject, and is also an examination of a range of studies for the purpose of reaching a combined result or best estimate. A meta-analysis is therefore a review of studies, combining their quantitative information.You can also view meta-analysis as a quantitative review of the literature on a particular subject. For example, a researcher might want to combine the results of 100 different studies about the job performance consequences of group decision making before reaching a conclusion. Many of the research findings presented throughout this book are based on meta-analysis rather than on the results of a single study. An important use of meta-analysis in organizational behavior is to understand how certain factors, referred to as moderator variables, influence the results of studies.2 For example, in the experiment mentioned previously about stress and problemsolving ability, a moderator variable might be the amount of stress a study participant faces in personal life. Individuals who enter the experiment already stressed might be influenced more negatively by the electronic beeping noise. Meta-analysis gives the impression of being scientific and reliable because so much information is assimilated, using sophisticated statistical tools. One might argue, however, that it is better to perform one rigorous study than to analyze many poorly conducted studies. 4 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 3 Identify the potential advantages of organizational behavior knowledge. HOW YOU CAN BENEFIT FROM STUDYING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Studying organizational behavior can enhance your effectiveness as a manager or professional. Yet the benefits from studying organizational behavior are not as immediately apparent as those derived from the study of functional fields such as accounting, marketing, purchasing, and information systems. Such fields constitute the content of managerial and professional work. Organizational behavior, in contrast, relates to the process of conducting such work. An exception may be seen with organizational behavior specialists whose content, or functional knowledge, deals with organizational behavior concepts and methods. Visualize an information systems specialist who has extremely limited interpersonal skills in communicating, motivating, and resolving conflict. She will have a difficult time applying her technical expertise to organizational problems. She will The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 therefore fail in serving her clients because she lacks the ability to use effective interpersonal processes. In contrast, if the same information systems specialist had solid interpersonal skills, she could do a better job of serving her clients. (She would probably also hold onto her job longer.) Studying and learning about organizational behavior offers four key advantages: (1) skill development, (2) personal growth, (3) enhancement of organizational and individual effectiveness, and (4) sharpening and refinement of common sense. Skill Development An essential requirement for entering into, surviving, and succeeding in the modern workplace is to have the appropriate skills. A person needs both skills related to his or her discipline and generic skills such as problem solving and dealing with people. The study of organizational behavior contributes directly to these generic skills. Later in this chapter, we provide details about how one develops skills related to organizational behavior. Organizational behavior skills have gained in importance in the modern workplace. A relevant example is that many CIOs (chief information officers) now need information technology professionals to get more involved in business concerns, to interact with other departments, and to communicate more effectively with colleagues. Soft skills such as business acumen, communication, leadership, and project management become more important as specialists such as information technology professionals get more involved in the overall business.A survey of 1420 CIOs found that 53 percent of these managers offered information technology employees training in areas outside of technology.3 The distinction between soft skills and hard skills is relevant for understanding the importance of skill development in organizational behavior. Soft skills are generally interpersonal skills such as motivating others, communicating, and adapting to people of different cultures. Hard skills are generally technical skills, such as information technology and job design. Some skills, such as those involved with decision making, have a mixture of soft and hard components.To make good decisions you have to be creative and imaginative (perhaps a soft skill), yet you also have to weigh evidence carefully (most likely a hard skill). The aforementioned survey classified business acumen as a soft skill, yet some business strategy specialists would classify such knowledge as a hard skill. Personal Growth through Insight into Human Behavior As explained by Robert P. Vecchio, an important reason for studying organizational behavior is the personal fulfillment gained from understanding others.4 Understanding fellow human beings can also lead to enhanced self-knowledge and selfinsight. For example, while studying what motivates others, you may gain an understanding of what motivates you. Participating in the experiential exercises and self-assessments included in this textbook provides another vehicle for personal growth.A case in point is the study of leadership in Chapter 11.You will be invited to take a self-quiz about readiness to assume a leadership role. Taking the test and reviewing the results will give you insight into the types of attitudes and behaviors you need to function as a leader. Personal growth, through understanding others and self-insight, is meritorious in and of itself, and it also has practical applications. Managerial and professional CHAPTER 1 Log on to http://www. thomsonedu.com/ infotrac. Perform a search on “soft skills” and find out what specific skills employers look for in “wellrounded” job applicants. 5 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 6 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior positions require sharp insights into the minds of others for tasks such as selecting people for jobs and assignments, communicating, and motivating. Sales representatives who can size up the needs of prospects and customers have a competitive advantage. Another value of understanding others and self-insight is that they contribute to continuous learning because the needs of others change over time, and so might your needs. For example, people are more strongly motivated by the prospects of job security today than they might have been in years past. Continuous downsizings and outsourcing have enhanced the value of job security. Enhancement of Organizational and Individual Effectiveness A major benefit from studying organizational behavior is that it provides information that can be applied to organizational problems.An important goal of organizational behavior is to improve organizational effectiveness—the extent to which an organization is productive and satisfies the demands of its interested parties. Each chapter of this book contains information that is applied directly or indirectly by many organizations. One visible example is the widespread use of teams in the workplace. Certainly, organizational behavior specialists did not invent teams. We suspect even prehistoric people organized some of their hunting forays by teams. Nevertheless, the conclusions of organizational behavior researchers facilitated the shift to teams in organizations. The accompanying box presents fresh evidence about the link between treating employees well and a firm’s financial performance. The argument is particularly interesting because it is presented by a financial analyst. Why does paying more attention to the human element improve business performance? One explanation Jeffrey Pfeffer offers is that people work harder when they have greater control over their work environment and when they are encouraged by peer pressure from teammates. Even more advantage comes from people working smarter. People-oriented management practices enable workers to use their wisdom and to receive appropriate training. Another contribution to improved performance stems from eliminating positions that focus primarily on watching and controlling workers.5 Much of organizational behavior deals with people-oriented management practices. Many of these practices will be described in later chapters. Understanding organizational behavior also improves organizational effectiveness because it uncovers factors that contribute to or hinder effective performance. Among these many factors are employee motivation, personality factors, and communication barriers. Furthermore, an advanced understanding of people is a major contributor to managerial success.This is especially true because so much of a manager’s job involves accomplishing tasks through people. Organizational behavior also contributes insights and skills that can enhance individual effectiveness. If a person develops knowledge about subjects such as improved interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork, he or she will become more effective. A specific example is that knowledge about organizational behavior can contribute to high performance. Executive coach Lisa Parker observes that managers sometimes neglect to give encouragement and recognition to good performers because these workers are already performing well.Yet if these same solid performers were given more encouragement, coaching in the form of advice, and recognition, they will often develop into superstars (high performers).6 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 7 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR In Action Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 Equity Analyst Evaluates the Importance of Treating Employees Well I have been an equity research analyst for more than 15 years, the past 10 devoted to analyzing consumer service stocks, including restaurants, hotels, casinos, and cruise companies.These are labor-intensive sectors.As part of my analyses, I have quizzed senior management on the steps they take to manage labor costs. It has been conventional wisdom that reducing wages and benefits improves profit margins, earnings, and even stock price because, generally, investors reward companies that cut these expenses. In reality, it’s not that simple. I don’t think enough investors have asked the more important question: Can companies be even more successful by focusing on optimizing each employee’s contribution, rather than simply looking for ways to reduce the cost of employing them? Perhaps, we as investors, need to be more conscious of how these people who clean our hotel rooms, cook our meals, and deal our cards are treated and paid, rather than simply looking to see whether the expense can be cut further. Staff motivation, although difficult to quantify, should be part of the investment analysis. At the risk of stating the obvious, it is apparent that treating employees with respect and paying them fairly goes a long way to establishing an efficient and creative organization. Most corporate executives say that they do this and that they don’t put shareholder interests ahead of their workers. But, a significant number of companies who say they subscribe to this philosophy don’t live up to it. This is surprising because the service companies that go that extra mile often derive tangible benefit from adopting these practices. They produce a higher quality of customer service, which becomes a competitive advantage for the company. Working in a busy coffee bar can be a tough job, but Starbucks Corporation is at the forefront of trying to treat its workers with respect. Howard Shultz, who has led Starbucks through more than 18 years of growth, has set the tone from the top and made it clear that his company is not going to leave its people behind. For instance, employees who complete a minimum of 20 hours of work or more a week could become eligible for health benefits and may receive a stock option grant.There is a financial benefit: Starbucks’ employee turnover is toward the bottom of the industry range and its service levels are high.And since the IPO [initial public offering] in June 1992, the share of Starbucks have risen an eye-popping 3500%. Treating employees well is certainly not the only reason that the companies alluded to here have outperformed.The strength of their products, the skills of management, and market conditions have also had a significant impact. I believe that investors should look beyond costcutting initiatives and ask whether the company is getting the very best out of its people. In other words, is it well managed? Questions 1. What in your mind constitutes being treated well by an employer? 2. What is the tie-in between this opinion piece and organizational behavior? Source: Steven Kent, “Happy Workers Are the Best Workers,” The Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2005, p. A20. Sharpening and Refining of Common Sense A manager commented after reading through several chapters of an organizational behavior textbook, “Why should I study this field? It’s just common sense. My job involves dealing with people, and you can’t learn that through a book.” Many other students of organizational behavior share the sentiments expressed by this manager. CHAPTER 1 However logical such an opinion might sound, common sense is not an adequate substitute for knowledge about organizational behavior. This knowledge sharpens and enlarges the domain for common sense. It markedly reduces the amount of time necessary to learn important behavior knowledge and skills, much as law school reduces the amount of time that a person in a previous era would have had to spend as a law apprentice. You may know through common sense that giving recognition to people is generally an effective method of motivating them toward higher performance. By studying organizational behavior, however, you might learn that recognition should be given frequently but not every time somebody attains high performance. (You specifically learn about intermittent rewards in your study of motivation.) You might also learn that the type of recognition you give should be tailored to the individual’s personality and preferences. For example, some people like flamboyant praise, while others prefer praise focused tightly on the merits of their work. Formal knowledge thus enhances your effectiveness. Organizational behavior knowledge also refines common sense by challenging you to reexamine generally accepted ideas that may be only partially true. One such idea is that inactivity is an effective way to reduce stress from a hectic schedule. In reality, some hard-driving people find inactivity more stressful than activity. For them, lying on a beach for a week might trigger intense chest pains. For these people, diversionary activity—such as doing yard work—is more relaxing than inactivity. 8 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 4 Explain key events in the history of organizational behavior. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The history of organizational behavior is rooted in the behavioral approach to management, or the belief that specific attention to workers’ needs creates greater satisfaction and productivity. In contrast to the largely technical emphasis of scientific management, a common theme of the behavioral approach is the need to focus on people. Scientific management did not ignore people altogether, and in some ways it contributed to organizational behavior. For example, scientific management heavily emphasized financial incentives to increase productivity. Yet the general thrust centered on performing work in a highly efficient manner. Organizational behavior is also heavily influenced by sociology in its study of group behavior, organization structure, diversity, and culture. In addition, the insights of cultural anthropologists contribute to an understanding of organizational culture (the values and customs of a firm). In recent years, several companies have hired anthropologists to help them cultivate the right organizational culture. Organizational behavior also gains insights from political science toward understanding the distribution of power in organizations. Five key developments in the history of organizational behavior are the classical approach to management, the Hawthorne studies, the human relations movement, the contingency approach to management and leadership, and positive organizational behavior. The Classical Approach to Management The study of management became more systematized and formalized as a by-product of the Industrial Revolution that took place from the 1700s through the 1900s. Managing these factories created the need for systems that could deal with large numbers of people performing repetitive work. The classical approach to management encompassed scientific management and administrative management, and contributed some insights into understanding workplace behavior. Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior The focus of scientific management was the application of scientific methods to increase an individual worker’s productivity.An example would be assembling a lawn mower with the least number of wasted motions and steps. Frederick W. Taylor, considered the father of scientific management, was an engineer by background. He used scientific analysis and experiments to increase worker output. A key part of his system was to convert individuals into the equivalent of machines parts by assigning them specific, repetitive tasks. Other key contributors to scientific management were Henry Gantt and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. (Gantt charts for scheduling activities are still used today.) Taylor tackled the dilemma of management wanting to maximize profits, and workers wanting to maximize possible wages. Disputes between management and labor centered on what each side saw as incompatible goals.Taylor believed that his system of scientific management could help both sides attain their goals, providing each would undergo a “mental revolution.” Each side had to conquer its antagonistic view of the other. Taylor believed that management and labor should regard profit as the result of cooperation between the two parties. Management and labor each needed the other to attain their goals.7 Scientific management is based on four principles, all of which direct behavior in the workplace:8 Careful study of the jobs to develop standard work practices, with standardization of the tools workers use in their jobs Selection of each worker using scientific principles of personnel selection Obtainment of cooperation between management and workers to ensure that work is accomplished according to standard procedures Plans and task assignments developed by managers, which workers should carry out According to these principles of scientific management, there is a division of work between managers and workers. Managers plan and design work, assign tasks, set performance goals, and make time schedules. Managers also select and train workers to do the tasks according to standard procedures, and give the workers feedback about their performance.Workers are rewarded with financial incentives when they increase their productivity.9 Administrative management was concerned primarily with the management and structure of organizations.The French businessman Henri Fayol and the German scholar Max Weber were the main contributors to administrative management. Based on his practical experience, Fayol developed 14 management principles through which management engaged in planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Weber suggested that bureaucracy is the best form of organization because it makes highly efficient management practices possible. The core of management knowledge lies within the classical school. Its key contributions come from studying management from the framework of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The major strength of the classical school was providing a systematic way of measuring people and work that still exists in some form today. For example, United Parcel Service (UPS) carefully measures the output and work approaches of the delivery workers.The major limitation of the classical school is that it sometimes ignores differences among people and situations. In addition, some of the classical principles for developing an organization are not well suited to fast-changing situations. • • • • The Hawthorne Studies Many scholars pinpoint the Hawthorne studies (1923–1933) as the true beginning of the behavioral approach to management.10 Without the insights gleaned from CHAPTER 1 9 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 10 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior these studies, organizational behavior might not have emerged as a discipline. The purpose of the first study conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric (an AT&T subsidiary) was to determine the effect of changes in lighting on productivity. In this study, workers were divided into an experimental group and a control group. Lighting conditions for the experimental group varied in intensity from 24 to 46 to 70 foot-candles.The lighting for the control group remained constant. As expected, the experimental group’s output increased with each increase in light intensity. But unexpectedly, the performance of the control group also changed. The production of the control group increased at about the same rate as that of the experimental group. Later, the lighting in the experimental group’s work area was reduced.This group’s output continued to increase, as did that of the control group. A decline in the productivity of the control group finally did occur, but only when the intensity of the light was roughly the same as moonlight. Clearly, the researchers reasoned, something other than illumination caused the changes in productivity. The relay assembly test room produced similar results over a 6-year period. In this case, relationships among rest, fatigue, and productivity were examined. First, normal productivity was established with no formal rest periods and a 48-hour week. Rest periods of varying length and frequency were then introduced. Productivity increased as the frequency and length of rest periods increased. Finally, the original conditions were reinstated.The return to the original conditions, however, did not result in the expected productivity drop. Instead, productivity remained at its usual high level. One interpretation of these results was that the workers involved in the experiment enjoyed being the center of attention.Workers reacted positively because management cared about them.The phenomenon is referred to as the Hawthorne effect. It is the tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention because they respond to the demands of the situation. In a research setting, this could mean that the people in an experimental group perform better simply because they are participating in an experiment. In a work setting, this could mean that employees perform better when they are part of any program—whether or not that program is valuable. The Hawthorne studies also produced other findings that served as the foundation for the human relations movement.Although many of these findings may seem obvious today, documenting them reinforced what many managers believed to be true. Key findings included the following: 1. Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed in influencing workers to achieve high levels of output. 2. Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging. 3. Leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundly influence employee satisfaction and performance. 4. Personal problems can strongly influence worker productivity. 5. Effective communication with workers is critical to managerial success. 6. Any factor influencing employee behavior is embedded in a social system. For instance, to understand the impact of pay on performance, you have to understand the climate in the work group and the leadership style of the manager. Furthermore, work groups provide mutual support and may resist management schemes to increase output. Despite the contributions of the Hawthorne studies, they have been criticized as lacking scientific rigor.The most interesting criticism contends that the workers in the control group were receiving feedback on their performance. Simultaneously, they were being paid more as they produced more.The dual impact of feedback and differential rewards produced the surprising results—not the Hawthorne effect.11 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Human Relations Movement The human relations movement is based on the belief that there is an important link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity.Workers bring various social needs to the job. In performing their jobs, workers typically become members of several work groups. Often these groups provide satisfaction of some of the workers’ needs. Satisfied workers, it was argued, would be more productive workers.The challenge for managers was to recognize workers’ needs and the powerful influence that work groups can have on individual and organizational productivity. A second major theme of the human relations movement is a strong belief in workers’ capabilities. Given the proper working environment, virtually all workers would be highly productive. Significant amounts of cooperation between workers and managers prove critical to achieving high levels of productivity. A cornerstone of the human relations movement is Douglas McGregor’s analysis of the assumptions managers make about human nature, delineated in two theories.12 Theory X is a set of traditional assumptions about people. Managers who hold these assumptions are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities. They believe that people dislike work, seek to avoid responsibility, are not ambitious, and must be supervised closely. McGregor urged managers to challenge these assumptions about human nature because they may be untrue in most circumstances. Theory Y is an alternative, and optimistic, set of assumptions.These assumptions include the ideas that people do accept responsibility, can exercise self-control, have the capacity to innovate, and consider work to be as natural as rest or play. McGregor argued that these assumptions accurately describe human nature in far more situations than most managers believe. He therefore proposed that these assumptions should guide managerial practice. The Contingency Approach Beginning in the early 1960s, organizational behavior specialists emphasized the difficulties in finding universal principles of managing people that can be applied in all situations. To make effective use of knowledge about human behavior, one must understand which factors in a particular situation are most influential. The contingency approach to management emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage people or work. A method that leads to high productivity or morale in one situation may not achieve the same results in another.The contingency approach is derived from the study of leadership styles. Experienced managers and leaders know that not all workers respond in the exact same way to identical leadership initiatives. A recurring example is that well-motivated, competent team members require less supervision than those who are poorly motivated and less competent. In Chapter 11, we present more information about the contingency approach to leadership. The strength of the contingency approach is that it encourages managers and professionals to examine individual and situational differences before deciding on a course of action. Its major problem is that it is often used as an excuse for not acquiring formal knowledge about organizational behavior and management. If management depends on the situation, why study organizational behavior or management? The answer, of course, is that a formal study of management helps a manager decide which factors are relevant in particular situations. In the leadership example just cited, the relevant factors are the skills and motivation of the group members. CHAPTER 1 11 CHAPTER 1 Positive Organizational Behavior 12 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior An emerging movement in organization behavior is a focus on what is right with people. The human relations movement was a start in this direction. However, the movement toward focusing on strengths rather than weaknesses stems directly from positive psychology, with its emphasis on what is right with people, such as love, work, and play. Fred Luthans defines positive organizational behavior as the study and application of human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement.13 The criteria of being measurable and developmental are significant because they separate positive organizational behavior from simply giving pep talks and inspirational speeches to employees. An example would be the concept of self-efficacy, or having confidence in performing a specific task. A worker might be asked how confident he or she is to perform a difficult task, such as evaluating the risk of a particular investment. If his or her self-efficacy is not strong enough, additional experience and training might enhance the person’s self-efficacy. An everyday application of positive organizational behavior would be for a manager to focus on employee strengths rather than weaknesses. It is well accepted that encouraging a worker to emphasize strengths will lead to much more performance improvement than attempting to patch weaknesses. Assume that a person is talented in interpersonal relationships but weak in quantitative analysis.This person is likely to be more productive by further developing strengths in a position calling for relationship building. The less productive approach would be overcoming the weakness in quantitative analysis and attempting to become a financial specialist. (The point here is not that working on weakness is fruitless, but that capitalizing on strengths has a bigger potential payoff.) In general, positive organizational behavior focuses on developing human strengths, making people more resilient, and cultivating extraordinary individuals, work units, and organizations.14 All of this is accomplished by careful attention to well-developed principles and research, rather than simply cheering people on. 5 Understand how a person develops organizational behavior skills. SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Developing skill in organizational behavior means learning to work effectively with individuals, groups, and organizational forces. The greater one’s responsibility, the more one is expected to work well at these three levels. The distinction between hard skills and soft skills mentioned previously is not necessarily the distinction between difficult and easy. Hard skills are not better than soft skills, and vice versa. A chief executive officer (CEO) may have a difficult job, yet she uses mostly soft skills such as leading others and bringing about organizational change. In contrast, an entry-level financial analyst might use hard skills in preparing an analysis. His job, however, might be considered easier than the CEO’s. Notice also that possessing soft skills often helps a person earn hard money. Developing most organizational behavior skills is more complex than developing a structured skill such as conducting a physical inventory or arranging an e-mail address book. Nevertheless, you can develop organizational behavior skills by reading this textbook and doing the exercises.The book follows a general learning model: 1. Conceptual knowledge and behavioral guidelines. Each chapter in this book presents research-based information about organizational behavior, including a section titled “Implications for Managerial Practice.” The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 Learner Uses 1. Conceptual knowledge and behavior guidelines 2. Conceptual information and examples 3. Experiential exercises 4. Feedback on skill utilization 5. Frequent practice CHAPTER 1 Exhibit 1-1 Skill Development in Organizational Behavior 2. Conceptual information and examples. These include brief descriptions of organizational behavior in action, generally featuring managers and leaders. 3. Experiential exercises. The book provides an opportunity for practice and personalization through cases and self-assessment exercises. Self-quizzes are included because they are an effective method of helping you personalize the information, assisting you in linking conceptual information to your own situation. For example, you will read about creative problem solving and also complete a quiz about creativity. 4. Feedback on skill utilization, or performance, from others. Feedback exercises appear at several places in the book. Implementing organizational behavior skills outside the classroom will provide additional opportunities for feedback. 5. Frequent practice. Readers who look for opportunities to practice organizational behavior skills outside the classroom will acquire skills more quickly. An important example is the development of creative thinking skills.The person who looks for imaginative solutions to problems regularly is much more likely to become a more creative thinker, and be ready to think creatively at a given moment. Contrast this with the individual who participates in a creative-thinking exercise once, and then attempts the skill a year later when the need is urgent. As in any field, frequently practicing a skill the right way leads to skill improvement. As you work through the book, keep the five-part learning model in mind.To help visualize this basic learning model, refer to Exhibit 1-1. Developing organizational behavior skills is also important because it contributes to your lifelong learning. A major theme of the modern organization is that to stay competitive, a worker has to keep learning and developing.A relevant example is that as work organizations have become more culturally diverse, it is important to keep developing one’s skills in working effectively with people from different cultures. A FRAMEWORK FOR STUDYING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR A challenge in studying organizational behavior is that it lacks the clear-cut boundaries of subjects such as cell biology or French. Some writers in the field consider organizational behavior to be the entire practice of management. Others focus organizational behavior much more on the human element and its interplay with the total organization. Such is the orientation of this textbook. Exhibit 1-2 presents a basic framework for studying organizational behavior.The framework is simultaneously a listing of the contents of Chapters 2 through 17. Proceeding from left to right, the foundation of organizational behavior is the study of individual behavior, presented in Chapters 2 though 7. No group or organization is so powerful that the qualities of individual members do not count. A Model for Developing Organizational Behavior Skills Organizational behavior skills can be developed by using a systematic approach. 13 CHAPTER 1 14 Exhibit 1-2 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 A Framework of Studying Organizational Behavior To better understand organizational behavior, recognize that behavior at the individual, group, and organizational system and global environment levels is linked. The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Individual Individual differences, mental, ability, and personality Learning, perception, and attribution Attitudes, values, and ethics Individual decision making and creativity Foundation concepts of motivation Motivational methods and programs Group and Interpersonal Relations Interpersonal communication Group dynamics Teams and teamwork Leadership in organizations Power, politics, and influence Conflict, stress, and well-being The Organizational System and the Global Environment Organizational structure and design Organizational culture Organizational change and knowledge management Cultural diversity and international organizational behavior Visualize a famous athletic team with a winning history. Many fans contend that the spirit and tradition of the team, rather than individual capabilities, carry it through to victories against tough opponents.Yet if the team has a couple of poor recruiting years or loses a key coach, it may lose more frequently. Key factors in understanding how individuals function include individual differences, mental ability and personality, learning, perception, attitudes, values, attribution, and ethics. It is also important to understand individual decision making, creativity, foundation concepts of motivation, and motivational programs. As suggested by the arrows in Exhibit 1-2, the various levels of study are interconnected. Understanding how individuals behave contributes to an understanding of groups and interpersonal relations, the second level of the framework.This will be studied in Chapters 8 through 13. The topics include communication, group dynamics (how groups operate), teams and teamwork, and leadership. Although leadership relates directly to interpersonal relationships, top-level leaders are also concerned with influencing the entire organization. The study of power, politics, and influence is closely related to leadership. Conflict, stress, and well-being might be classified at the individual level, yet these processes are heavily dependent on interaction with others. Finally, the third level of analysis in the study of organizational behavior is the organizational system and the global environment, as presented in Chapters 14 through 17. Components of the organizational and environmental level studied here include organizational structure and design, organizational culture, organizational change and knowledge management, cultural diversity, and international (or crosscultural) organizational behavior. International organizational behavior could just as well have been studied before the other topics. Our position, however, is that everything else a person learns about organizational behavior contributes to an understanding of cross-cultural relations in organizations. The connecting arrows in Exhibit 1-2 emphasize the interrelatedness of processes and topics at the three levels. Motivation provides a clear example. A The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 person’s motivational level is dependent on his or her individual makeup as well as work-group influences and the organizational culture. Some work groups and organizational cultures energize new members because of their highly charged atmospheres. The arrows also run in the other direction. Highly motivated workers, for example, improve work-group performance, contribute to effective interpersonal relationships, and enhance the organizational culture. 15 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERIAL PRACTICE Each of the following chapters includes a brief section explaining how managers and professionals can use selected information to enhance managerial practice. Our first lesson is the most comprehensive and perhaps the most important: Managers should raise their level of awareness about the availability of organizational behavior information. Before making decisions in dealing with people in a given situation, pause to search for systematic information about people and organizations. For example, if you need to resolve conflict, first review information about conflict resolution, such as that presented in Chapter 13.The payoff could be improved management of conflict. Another key implication from this chapter is to search for strengths and talents in others and yourself, and then capitalize on these strengths as a way of improving organizational and individual effectiveness. Weaknesses should not be ignored, but capitalizing on strengths has a bigger potential payoff. CVS Stands for Consumer Value Store Visit www.thomsonedu. com/management/dubrin and watch the video for this chapter. In what ways do you think the Emerging Leaders Program helps achieve good person–job fit at CVS? SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS 1 Explain what organizational behavior means. Organizational behavior is the study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction between people and the organization, and the organization itself. Organizational behavior relates to the process, rather than the content, of managerial work. 2 Summarize the research methods of organizational behavior. Three frequently used methods of collecting data on organizational behavior are surveys (typically questionnaires), interviews, and direct observation of behavior. Four widely used research methods are case studies, laboratory experiments, field experiments, and meta-analysis. The essence of conducting an experiment is to make sure that the independent variable influences the results. 3 Identify the potential advantages of organizational behavior knowledge. Knowledge about organizational behavior offers four key advantages: skill development, personal growth, the enhancement of organizational and personal effectiveness, and sharpening and refinement of common sense. Substantial evidence has accumulated that substantiates that emphasizing the human factor increases productivity and gives a firm a competitive advantage. Organizational behavior skills have increased in importance in the modern workplace, partly because of the prevalence of diverse teams. 4 Explain key events in the history of organizational behavior. The history of organizational behavior parallels the behavioral approach to management, including contributions from classical management. The classical approach to management encompasses both scientific and administrative management, and contributes some insights into understanding workplace behavior. The behavioral approach formally began with the Hawthorne studies. Among the major implications of these studies were that leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundly influence employee satisfaction and performance. The human relations movement and the contingency approach to management are also key developments in the history of organizational behavior. The human CHAPTER 1 relations movement was based on the belief that there is an important link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity. Analysis of Theory X versus Theory Y (pessimistic versus optimistic assumptions about people) is a key aspect of the movement. The contingency approach emphasizes taking into account individual and situational differences in managing people. An emerging movement in the field is positive organizational behavior, which focuses on measurable human resource strengths and capacities. 16 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior 5 Understand how a person develops organizational behavior skills. Organizational behavior skills can be developed by following a general learning model that includes the use of conceptual knowledge and behavioral guidelines, experiential exercises, feedback on skill utilization, and frequent practice. The framework for studying organizational behavior in this textbook emphasizes the interconnectedness of three levels of information: individuals, groups and interpersonal relations, and the organizational system and the global environment. KEY TERMS AND PHRASES Organizational Behavior, 2 The study of human behavior in the workplace, the interaction between people and the organization, and the organization itself. Hawthorne Effect, 10 The tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention because they respond to the demands of the situation. Meta-Analysis, 4 A quantitative or statistical review of the literature on a particular subject; an examination of a range of studies for the purpose of reaching a combined result or best estimate. Human Relations Movement, 11 An approach to dealing with workers based on the belief that there is an important link among managerial practices, morale, and productivity. Organizational Effectiveness, 6 The extent to which an organization is productive and satisfies the demands of its interested parties. Contingency Approach to Management, 11 The viewpoint that there is no one best way to manage people or work but that the best way depends on certain situational factors. Behavioral Approach to Management, 8 The belief that specific attention to the workers’ needs creates greater satisfaction and productivity. Scientific Management, 9 The application of scientific methods to increase workers’ productivity. Positive Organizational Behavior, 12 The study and application of human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement. Administrative Management, 9 A school of management thought concerned primarily with how organizations should be structured and managed. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES 1. 2. 3. 4. Find somebody in your network who works for, or has worked for, Starbucks (including you) to comment on employee treatment by management. What contributions might organizational behavior knowledge make in the Internet age? What does it mean to say that organizational behavior relates to the process—as opposed to the content—of a manager’s job? Give a possible explanation why meta-analysis is considered so important in evaluating the effectiveness of prescription drugs. 5. 6. 7. Work by yourself, or form a small brainstorming group, to furnish an example from physical science in which common sense proves to be untrue. Have you ever worked for a manager who held Theory X assumptions about people? What was the impact of his or her assumptions on your motivation and satisfaction? Get together with a few classmates. Develop a list of strengths of group members that you think if further developed would be career assets, and explain why these strengths might be assets. The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 CASE PROBLEM: The Hands-On CEO of JetBlue The first thing you notice when getting on board is the new-car smell. “No wonder,” says the flight attendant, hearing your remark. She points to a metal plaque on the doorway rim that says the Airbus A320 was delivered 1 month ago. Other notable features are the free cable on your personal video screen and the leather seats. Flight attendants are trained on how to give service with a retro flair. All attendants have to learn how to strut proudly, as if there were an imaginary string between their chin and belly button. JetBlue attendants have a sense of fun about their jobs, and the can-do pilot informs over the public address system that yes, there’s a major storm coming into the New York City area but that we’ll get there on time anyway. And the plane and passengers do. So the traveler wonders. Is this for real? Or maybe the right question is, “How long can they keep up this nonsense?” JetBlue was rated highest in customer satisfaction of all U.S. airlines in Condé Nast Traveler magazine’s 2005 Business Travel Awards—the fourth time in 6 years. Just as discontent with airlines was mounting in 2000, JetBlue Airlines came into being with a new attitude, new planes, and a new concept of service. What perfect takeoff timing for a carrier that is trying to bring pleasure and even style back to flying. JetBlue is lowprice and all-coach, like Southwest Airlines, yet hip and sassy, like Virgin Atlantic. In the air, JetBlue offers the plush seats and satellite TV; on the ground it offers a high level of efficiency. JetBlue has achieved an impressive profit picture. Of the hundreds of start-ups since the industry was deregulated in 1978, only Southwest Airlines and JetBlue have sustained their success. For 2005, JetBlue had a net income of approximately $60 million for $1.3 billion in revenue, with over 80 percent of seats being filled. Credit CEO David Neeleman, who founded the firm at age 41, for piloting JetBlue past the early disasters that typically befall fledgling carriers. For starters, Neeleman raised $160 million from investors—almost triple what other new airline entrants have managed to obtain. The hefty sum is insurance against any unforeseen cash crunch. Consumers are usually concerned about the safety issue with “new” airlines that fly 25-year-old planes. JetBlue flies only factory-fresh, state-of-the-art A320s. Neeleman has fitted each with 162 seats—versus the A320’s 180-seat maximum. Flyers are ecstatic about the JetBlue experience. It begins with pricing, which is competitive and doesn’t torture consumers with requirements like Saturday-night stays. JetBlue is attracting business travelers, the industry’s most valuable passengers and the source of up to 50 percent of its profits. A JetBlue spokesperson said, “We see our customers as the same ones who can afford more but shop at Target because their stuff is hip but inexpensive.” That kind of thinking drove decisions like JetBlue’s choice of leather seats instead of less expensive cloth. “It’s a nicer look, a better feel,” says Neeleman, in full salesman mode. Nevertheless, as JetBlue became several years old, their sections of airline terminals, such as JFK (serving New York City), had the same worn-down look with cracked leather seats as other airlines. Neeleman obsesses over keeping employees happy, and with good reason. Airline watchers say JetBlue’s ability to stay union-free is critical to its survival as a lowcost carrier. The industry’s labor-relations record is weak. “But if there is anyone who realizes the importance of treating their employees right, it’s the management team at JetBlue,” says airline analyst Holly Hegeman. JetBlue employees get profit-sharing checks, amounting to 17 percent of their salary in recent years. Also, 84 percent of JetBlue employees participate in a company stock purchase program, in which they can buy stock at a 15 percent discount. On September 21, 2005, JetBlue Flight 292 in Los Angeles narrowly escaped a crash when its front landing gear stuck sideways, so the plane had to land while metal scraped the runway instead of the wheels rolling in their intended manner. The day after the mishap Neeleman released a statement acknowledging the problem, and thanking everyone concerned for their assistance and emotional support. Neeleman’s public statement included these words: The crew of Flight 292 has asked us to communicate their appreciation to the 140 customers on board for their cooperation, and they are also grateful for the messages of support sent to JetBlue by thousands of people. The crew looks forward to returning to their families and loved ones, and to their normal lives as quickly as possible. Neeleman is one of seven siblings, and has nine children of his own. He has been dreaming about (continued) 17 CHAPTER 1 Andrew J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, 4/e, Mason, OH:Thomson South-Western, 2007 18 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior CASE PROBLEM (Continued) airplanes since he saw a red one on his second birthday cake. A serial travel entrepreneur, he has launched four airlines, including Morris Air and Canada’s WestJet Airlines, with each one being more successful than the last. Neeleman, with a strong interest in information technology, developed the computer system that became the basis for e-ticketing. Neeleman notes that despite heavy competition, JetBlue’s profit margins are the highest in the industry. He attributes part of the company’s success to selecting the right people, which is especially important because an airline is a people business. “We have a saying at JetBlue that you’re either serving a customer or serving someone who is serving a customer.” An example of the selection process at JetBlue was an applicant pilot who was furious about being rejected. The pilot telephoned Neeleman and explained that he had 15,000 hours of flying experience. Neeleman then spoke to the interviewer, who said that she asked the pilot, “You’ve flown for 15,000 hours, tell us one thing that you’ve done besides just sitting there and flying the airplane.” He couldn’t come up with a single example. He retorted, “What do you mean by that? I’m a pilot, and that’s what I do.” The interviewer explained that the pilot was not somebody JetBlue wants in the company. To manage the company, Neeleman emphasizes the quality of supervisors. The company has one supervisor for every 80 employees. Neeleman tells the supervisors, “You can know 80 people. You can know who they’re married to, you can know who their kids are, and what their challenges are.” In this way JetBlue employees know there is a personal touch to the company. Case Questions 1. In what way does Neeleman demonstrate an understanding of organizational behavior? 2. So what’s wrong with a pilot staying in the cockpit in terms of being a contributor to a people-oriented business? 3. How else might Neeleman make use of organizational behavior knowledge to improve the chances of JetBlue Airlines staying successful? Sources: Sally B. Donnelly, “Blue Skies: Is Jet Blue the Next Great Airline— Or Just a Little Too Good to Be True?, July 30, 2001 Time, pp. 24–27; Eric Gillin, “JetBlue Soars Past Profit Targets,” TheStreet.com, July 25, 2002; (http://www.thestreet.com/pf/tech/earnings/10034305.html); “On the Record: David Neeleman, JetBlue Airways, http://www.sfgate.com, September 12, 2004; JetBlue Airways Voted Best in Class and Best Value for Cost . . . Again,” www.primezone.com, September 29, 2005; “Statement by JetBlue CEO David Neeleman Regarding Flight 292, http://www.primezone.com, September 22, 2005. ENDNOTES 1. Gregory Morehead and Ricky W. Griffin, Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations, 4th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995), p. 3. 2. Piers D. Steel and John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, “Comparing Meta-Analytic Techniques under Realistic Conditions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, February 2002, p. 107. 3. Jon Surmacz, “The Hard Truth: Soft Skills Matter,” CIO Magazine, January 15, 2005, p. 1. 4. Robert P. Vecchio, Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts, 6th ed. (Mason, OH: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2003), pp. 5–6. 5. Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998), p. 59. 6. Cited in Anne Fisher, “Turn Star Employees into Superstars,” Fortune, December 13, 2004, p. 70. 7. Joseph E. Champoux, Organizational Behavior: Essential Tenets (Mason, OH: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2003), pp. 11–12; Edward G. Wertheim, “Historical Background of Organizational Behavior,” http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/ introd/history.htm, accessed March 16, 2006. 8. Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (New York: W. W. Norton, 1911), p. 9. 9. Champoux, Organizational Behavior, p. 12. 10. E. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939); Wertheim, pp. 2–3. 11. H. McIlvaine Parsons, “What Caused the Hawthorne Effect? A Scientific Detective Story,” Administration & Society, November 1978, pp. 259–283. 12. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960), pp. 33–57. 13. Fred Luthans, “Positive Organizational Behavior: Developing and Managing Psychological Strengths,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 59. 14. Kim Cameron, Jane Dutton, Rover Quinn, and Gretchen Spreitzer, “What Is Positive Organizational Scholarship?” http://www. bus.umich.edu/Positive/WhatisPOS/, accessed September 29, 2005. ...
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