9783540208334-c1 - 1.1 Environment as Stress Factor Stress Physiology of Plants Plants are bound to places They therefore have to be considerably

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Recommended Literature Aarts MGM, Fiers MWEJ (2003) What drives plant stress genes? Trends Plant Sci 8:99–102 Bohnert HJ, Nelson DL, Jensen RG (1995) Adaptations to environmental stress. Plant Cell 7:1099–1111 Couzin J (2002) Breakthrough of the year. Small RNAs make big splash. Science 298: 2296–2297 http://www.ambion.com/hottopics/rnai RNA interference http://www.nature.com/nature/fow/ 000316.html RNA interference Larcher W (ed) (2003) Physiological plant ecology, 4th edn (chapter: Plants under stress). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 345–450 Robertson D (2004) VIGS vectors for gene si- lencing: many targets, many tools. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:495–519 Stokes T (2003) DNA-RNA-protein gang to- gether in silence. Trends Plant Sci 8:53–55 Taiz L, Zeiger E (eds) (2002) Plant physiology, 3rd edn (chapter: Stress physiology). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA Waterhouse PM, Wang M-B, Finnegan EJ (2001) Role of short RNAs in gene silencing. Trends Plant Sci 6:297–301 1.1.1 Abiotic and Biotic Environments Cause Stress The environment affects an organism in many ways, at any time. To understand the reactions of a particular organism in a certain situation, individual external influences, so-called environ- mental factors , are usually considered separately, if at all possible. Environmental factors can be of abiotic and biotic nature. Biotic environmen- tal factors , resulting from interactions with other organisms, are, for example, infection or mechanical damage by herbivory or trampling, as well as effects of symbiosis or parasitism. Abiotic environmental factors include tempera- ture, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water and minerals, and CO 2 ; these are the pa- rameters and resources that determine the growth of a plant. Many other influences, which are only rarely beneficial to the plant (wind as distributor of pollen and seeds), or not at all beneficial or are even damaging (ionising rays or pollutants), are also classified as abiotic fac- tors. The effect of each abiotic factor depends on its quantity. With optimal quantity or inten- sity, as may be provided in a greenhouse, the plant grows “optimally” and thus achieves its Plants are bound to places. They, therefore, have to be considerably more adaptable to stressful environments and must acquire greater tolerance to multiple stresses than animals and humans. This is shown very clearly by the lim- itations in the distribution of particular types of vegetation, for example, the tree line on mountains. Extremely high light intensities, mechanical stress by wind, frequent peri- ods of frost, and a winter period of many months have left their marks on these spruces and pines at about 3000 m altitude on Mt. Hood in Oregon (USA). Photo E. Beck 1.1 Environment as Stress Factor: Stress Physiology of Plants
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“physiological normal type”, maximising its physiologically achievable performance.
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BI 200 taught by Professor Potter during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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9783540208334-c1 - 1.1 Environment as Stress Factor Stress Physiology of Plants Plants are bound to places They therefore have to be considerably

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