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Unformatted text preview: B R I T I S H M E D I C A L J O U R N A L : B E I N G T H E J O U R N A L O F T H E B R I T I S H M E D I C A L A S S O C I A T I O N . LONDON: SATURDAY, JULY 3, 1869. LECTURES O N T H E HISTOLOGY OF T H E EYE: (BEING THE ARRIS AND GALE ANATOMICAL LECTURES.) Delivered at the Royal College ofSurgeons ofEngland, 7une I869. BY JOHN WHITAKER HULKE, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., Assistant-Surgeon totheMiddlesex Hospital, and Surgeon to theRoyal London Ophthalmic Hospital. LECTURE I. MR. PRESIDENT, COUNCILLORS, AND GENTLEMEN,-In selectingthe Histology of the Eye for the Arris and Gale Anatomical Lectures, which, by your commands, Ihave thehonour to deliverin thistheatre, I believe we should find I a m strictly fulfilling the desires of the founders, could theyspeak to us thisday. All that w e know of them isembodied in a few linesintheArchive ofCollegeBenefactors,which tell us that in I653 Ed. Arris, and in I689 John Gale, two barber- surgeons, gave annuitiesto theirjointcorporations,toprovide for " the dissection of a body yearly, and reading on themuscles;"and "for a course of three lectures on anatomy, to begiven between Whitsuntide and Christmas." Thesegifts,afterwards transferredtothe " Corpora- tion of the Surgeons of London", when theunion of thebarbers and surgeonswas annulled, tell us oftimes when opportunitiesofacquiring a n exact knowledge ofthestructure ofthehuman body bydissectionwere rare, and accessibleonlytothefew,and when themajorityofthose en- gaged inthehealingartwere necessarily illinformedin anatomy. They show us these two old truth-loving chirurgeons desirous of promoting the studyof the onlytrue basis of medicine and surgery. Theirana- tomy was ofthesortwhichwe now technicallycall"descriptiveand sur- gical"; forhistologycould hardlybe saidto have come into existence. The microscope, ina very simple form, was onlyjust beginning to be appliedby Leuwenhoeck tothe detection of theArcana Naturiv; and none couldhave thenforeseenthemarvellous perfectionthisinstrument would one day attain, or have foretold thewonderful insight itwould giveus intothefinerstructureofthoseorgans, thecoarser features alone of which were familiar to the anatomists of those times. But, since Arrisand Gale lived, allkinds ofknowledge have advanced with giant strides; nor has the science of anatomy, in its several branches, re- mained stationary. The coarse anthropotomy of the dissecting-room has been wrought out to itsfurthest limits; so thatthe second year's student, who now offers himself for examinationhere, has (ifhe have used his time and opportunities aright)a better acquaintance with it than was possessedby themaster chirurgeonofformer days. Histology, however, stillhas many penetralia worthy of engaging the closeand intelligentobservation ofany number ofhonestinquirers....
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