General-Pathology-Notes - 530.304 General Pathology Lecture...

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530.304 – General Pathology Lecture Notes I NTRODUCTION TO P ATHOLOGY Introduction to Pathology General pathology is the study of the mechanisms of disease (with emphasis on aetiology and pathogenesis), while systematic pathology is the study of diseases as they occur within particular organ systems – it involves aetiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, macro- and microscopic appearance, specific diagnostic features, natural history and sequelae. Academic pathology includes research and teaching, and the discipline of experimental pathology was derived from this. Clinical pathology is often referred to as laboratory medicine and includes a number of diagnostic disciplines. Pathology provides the basis for understanding: The mechanisms of disease The classification of diseases The diagnosis of diseases The basis of treatment Monitoring the progress of disease Determining prognosis Understanding complications SNOMED – standard classification of disease – considers the following aspects: Topography Morphology Aetiology Function Disease Procedure Occupation Techniques of Pathology Gross pathology – macroscopic investigation and observation of disease Light microscopy – thin section of wax or plastic permeated tissues, snap-frozen tissues Histochemistry – microscopy of treated tissue sections (to distinguish cell components) Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence – tagged antibodies (monoclonal better) Electron microscopy Biochemical techniques – e.g. fluid and electrolyte balance, serum enzymes Cell cultures – also allowing cytogenetic analysis Medical microbiology – direct microscopy, culturing and identification Molecular pathology – in situ hybridisation (specific genes/mRNA), polymerase chain reaction C ELL I NJURY The Pathogenesis of Cell Injury Normal cell structure and function requires: Nuclear function for nucleic acid, protein, lipid and carbohydrate synthesis Enzyme function for assembly and degradation of organelles and cell products Membrane function for the transport of metabolites/messengers and for the ionic and fluid homeostasis Energy production and the formation of high-energy compounds by aerobic phosphorylation (and/or anaerobic glycolysis) Injury to the nucleus : Genetic defects – single gene, multiple gene or whole chromosome abnormalities Nutritional disturbances – e.g. pernicious anaemia due to B 12 deficiency affecting DNA synthesis in haematopoietic cells
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530.304 – General Pathology Lecture Notes Toxic injury – may inhibit nuclear functions (synthesis, division) Standard background radiation is approximately 10 -3 rads, with minor consequences for dosages lower than 10 rads. A dose of 100 rads will give mild radiation sickness. A dose of 1000 rads will give severe radiation sickness, with pancytopenia. Note that UV is sufficient to create pro-mutagenic damage to DNA and hence has long-term effects.
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BI 200 taught by Professor Potter during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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General-Pathology-Notes - 530.304 General Pathology Lecture...

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