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Itroduction to A_P and Chemistry

Itroduction to A_P and Chemistry - 1 BIO 110 Anatomy and...

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1 BIO 110 Anatomy and Physiology I Lecture Notes Dr. Patrick Slavin I. Organization of the Body Anatomy (the study of body structure) and physiology (the study of body function) are, for convenience, organized into eleven interrelated organ systems which will be explained over the next two semesters. These eleven organ systems are as follows: (pp 6 – 7) 1 - Integumentary System - skin and associated structures - Skeletal system - supporting and protecting bones and cartilages - Muscular System - muscles and movement - Lymphatic/Immune System - lymph vessels and organs, the immune response - Respiratory - oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal - Digestive System - breakdown and absorption of food - Nervous System - response of internal and external stimuli by electrical impulses - Endocrine System - internal control by chemical hormones - Cardiovascular System - blood, blood vessels and heart - Urinary System - elimination of nitrogenous waste, water balance - Reproductive System - production of offspring We will also approach the study of the body by looking at the gradient of complexity of biology: Atoms Compounds Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Anatomical Position (pp 14 – 15 allows us to consistently discuss the orientation of the body in space. A number of pairs of terms help us to describe this orientation. (p 13) - Superior – Inferior . Superior refers to structures above or toward the head, Inferior below or toward the foot. Example: the nose is superior to the mouth, the mouth is inferior to the nose. - Anterior (also called Ventral) – Posterior (also called Dorsal). Anterior refers to the front, Posterior to the back. Example: the stomach is anterior to the spine, the spine is posterior to the stomach. - Medial – Lateral . Medial means toward the midline of the body, Lateral towards the sides or away from the midline. Example: the ears are lateral to the nose, the nose is medial to the ears. - Proximal – Distal. Proximal means closer to the origin or point of attachment to the body, Distal means away from the point. Example: the knee is proximal to the foot, the foot is distal to the knee. - Superficial – Deep . Superficial means toward the body surface, Deep means toward the interior. Example: Skin is superficial to bone, bone is deep to skin.. There are also terms to describe the sectioning of the body and its organs into the three planes or dimensions of space (pp 14 – 16). A sagittal section divides into right and left parts. A frontal or coronal section divides into ventral and dorsal parts. A transverse section (usually called a cross section or Xsec.) divides into superior and inferior parts or cuts across a structure. 1 Pagination as in Marieb and Hoehn, Anatomy and Physiology , 3 rd edition.
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2 Specific areas of the body are described as regional terms or body landmarks (p 14). Among the more important regional terms are: Anterior Posterior Abdominal – anterior body trunk below ribs Cephalic – head Antecubital – anterior elbow Gluteal – buttocks Axillary – armpit Lumbar – back between ribs and hips
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Itroduction to A_P and Chemistry - 1 BIO 110 Anatomy and...

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