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SOPHOMORE MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY SECTION: IMMUNOLOGY INNATE VERSUS ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY Lecturer: Louis B. Justement, Ph.D. 934-1429 [email protected] Objectives: To become familiar with the components of the innate and adaptive immune systems, and to review the functional role that each plays in the immune response. Reading Assignment: Kuby Immunology – Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION - ?! ?! ?! ? Why Study Immunology ?! ?! ?! ? The immune system protects the host from infectious diseases and cancer The most common medical complaints for ambulatory care visits deal with respiratory, sinus, ear and throat infections – over 100 million visits in 1995 Although the immune system is designed to protect the host from infectious organisms or cancer, improper function of the immune system can lead to debilitating disease or death Allergy and Asthma – aberrant immune response involving the IgE class of immunoglobulin in which exposure to antigen triggers an IgE-mediated release of pharmacologic substances that cause symptoms ranging from sneezing and dermatitis to inflammation of the lungs and asthma The single most common reason for a visit to the emergency room is an asthma attack – 1/3 of all visits ~160,000 hospitalizations for asthma ~14.6 million persons in the United States suffer from asthma with 5000 deaths/year Prevalence of asthma has doubled in last 25 years ~1/3 of all persons in the United States suffer from allergies Combined, asthma and allergy constituted over 28 million ambulatory care visits in 1995 – ranked 4 th among all causes Graft Rejection and Graft-Versus-Host Disease (Transplantation) – An encounter with foreign cells or tissues will cause the immune system to respond strongly to rid the host of the “invaders” – however, this causes significant problems in terms of conducting
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organ and tissue transplantation to cure disease ~60,000 persons in the United States would benefit from a kidney transplant but this is complicated by the problem of transplant rejection Transplantation is also associated with the risk of GVH disease when immune cells from the transplant attack the host as non-self – this can be fatal Currently, transplant rejection and GVH are controlled by administration of immunosupressive drugs – however, these drugs suppress general immune function and therefore leave the individual susceptible to infectious diseases and cancer Autoimmune Disease – Associated with situations in which the immune system looses the ability to discriminate between self and non-self – manifested as a number of chronic debilitating diseases with differing symptoms depending on the tissues and organs that are attacked Multiple Sclerosis – an attack on the brain and central nervous system Crohn’s Disease – an attack on the tissues of the gut Rheumatoid Arthritis – an attack on the joints of the arms and legs Immunodeficiency – loss of function of components of the innate and/or adaptive
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