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1 || LIBERATION TRANSFORMED BY: LIEZL LUDAN BA POL SCI 2020 CHAPTER 1: TOWARDS A PEOPLE’S HISTORY 1. How did Renato Constantino define History? Ø Collective struggle of men for freedom and a better life 2. Significance of mass actions: Ø Raising the consciousness of people Ø Capacity of men (individuals) to change society HIGHTEND CONSCIUSNESS -> REALIZATION OF CAPACITY FOR CHANGE 3. What is the unifying thread? Ø Filipino resistance to colonial oppression Ø Colonial oppression never ended because we are now fighting it on an abstract level because of colonial mentality 4. True Filipino History Ø Does not focus on the individual heroes CHAPTER 2: THE FIRST “LIBERATION” Why Spain has to colonize? 1. Economic aspect: Spanish colonies were in transition: Feudalistic society -> Capitalist society System of Feudalism: Lord holds land and in turn protects his vassal Vassal & serf farmed the lands Fief – granted to vassal in exchange for his services Why did Spain became feudal? Because of the middle ages: Fall of the kings & queens Church (Papacy) – held temporal power Spain failed to become capitalistic because: (1) Stuck in transition of feudalism & capitalism -> Mercantilism: Accumulation of precious metals, silver & gold wherein the power of the country is measured on how much precious metal, silver and gold they acquired and on how many is their colony - Accumulated through colonization of the orient - Supposed to prepare you for capitalism because you gain capital (2) Spain didn’t invest - Spain kept buying goods, kept on exploiting from new colonies (became too greedy); they were covered in debt - Spaniards colonies all became poor unlike British colonies (they made plantations in their colonies, then sold their products to other countries) Basically they needed to colonize because they were Mercantilists transitioning to a Capitalist society and they needed to colonize to increase capital 2. Cultural aspect: - Needed because in order for a movement of country to be successful, everyone should be invested Crusades - Crusaders went to West Asia - Lord were the ones being sent e.g. (Richard the Lion Heart) - Motivated by luxuries: (1) Need for spice > Silk, salt (2) Need to preserve food > Because Europe was a temperate country (3) Need for new taste > European food was too bland > Moors brought spices Exposure to food -> Increase in demand Rise of a new class - Nobles had no more source of income - Nobles wanted to become Merchants because of their increase in finance - Merchants used to be looked down upon - Kings favor shifted to the Merchants, because they paid more taxes - Thus kings invested to the Merchant’s exploration Basically needed Philippines as a colony because of the need for spices, need to preserve food and acquisition of new taste 3. Political aspect: (There was Monarchy) Isabella of Castille Ferdinand of Aragon Ø Rise of Nation state = Centralized government = New head of state Ø Kings coffers increased = Exercised political & economic power Ø Papacy’s power died down but still held temporal power Friars vs. Spanish Colonial Government e.g. Gov. Gen Bustamante killed a Priest

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