neoplasia - Neoplasia In these lectures you will understand...

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© Dr. Fahd Al-Mulla Molecular Pathology Unit Kuwait University Neoplasia In these lectures you will understand the following: Etiology (causes) of neoplasia. What evidence is there that neoplasia is a genetic disorder? What is the role of the environment in carcinogenesis? Molecular Basis of neoplasia.Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Multistep carcinogenesis or tumour progression environmental carcinogens and process of carcingenesis Mechanism of cancer spread. Types of cancer spread Tumour grading and staging Effects of tumours on host: local effects, cancer cachexia, paraneoplastic syndromes.
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Neoplasia Etiology genetic Neoplasia is defined as: " an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which  exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the  same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli that evoked the change."  Neoplasia has genetic and environmental causes. It is important to note that both  play parts in causing neoplasia. Genetic evidence of tumourigenesis 1. Introduction of genes (activated oncogenes) in normal Cells in culture make them transformed (they lose contact Inhibition Grow in suspension and divide uncontrollably) 2. Transgenic mice/knock-out mice (mice with new onco- Genes Introduced in cells at early embryological stages or Removing genes from them) have a higher incidence of cancer 3. Patients with familial cancers have siblings with relatively Higher risk of developing cancer. For example, mutation of BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 (Breast cancer )genes are linked to Familial breast and ovarian cancer. 4. Patients with well known inherited cancer syndromes In which inheritance of a single mutated gene have increased Risk of developing tumours. A well known example is Familial Polyposis coli. Patients who inherit mutations in the Adenoma- Polyposis coli gene have innumerable polypoid adenomas of The colon and in 85% of cases are fated to develop colorectal Carcinoma by age 50 or so.
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Neoplasia Etiology environmental The environment we live in is filled with cancer causing agents (See Table 1). Rremarkable difference in the incidence and death rates of specific forms of Cancer can be found around the world. This can either be explained by differences in the Genetic make up of different races or more likely that the environment different people live in Has different carcinogens. We know that Death from skin cancer (Melanoma) are 6 times more frequent in Australia and New Zealand (white settlers exposed to the sun) than in Iceland, which is probably attributed to exposure to the sun. Also, The death rates from stomach cancer in both men and women In Japan is seven to eight times more common than in Europe or the U.S.A. Why is that? Well It could be that the Japanese have some small different genetic make up that makes them more Susceptible to stomach cancer than the Americans but it is more likely that the Japanese are Exposed to some carcinogens that the Americans are not. So if one studies the incidence of
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