Lecture 3 - Chapter 2 The Components of Matter 1-1 Please...

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1-1 Chapter 2 The Components of Matter
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1-2 Please Note Quiz 1 will cover Chapter 1 and Chapter 2
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1-3 The Most Important Points from Last Time ¾ Problem solving techniques ¾ Base units and conversions ¾ Temperature scales and conversions ¾ Significant figures, particularly zeros ¾ Precision vs. accuracy
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1-4 Suggested Problems -- Chapter 2 11, 13, 20, 22, 27, 34, 37,39, 41, 45, 50, 54, 56, 58, 61, 68, 70, 76, 82, 88,90, 94, 100, 104
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Chapter 2: The Components of Matter 2.1 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures: An Atomic Overview 2.2 The Observations That Led to an Atomic View of Matter 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 2.4 The Observations That Led to the Nuclear AtomModel 2.5 The Atomic Theory Today 2.6 Elements: A First Look at the Periodic Table 2.7 Compounds: Introduction to Bonding 2.8 Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Masses 2.9 Mixtures: Classification and Separation
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Definitions for Components of Matter Element - the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means . Molecule - a structure that consists of two or more atoms which are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit. Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1
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Law of Conservation of Mass: The total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction . reactant 1 + reactant 2 product total mass total mass = calcium oxide + carbon dioxide calcium carbonate CaO + CO 2 CaCO 3 56.08g + 44.00g 100.08g Law of Mass Conservation
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Law of Definite (or Constant) Composition : No matter what its source, a particular chemical compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass. CaCO 3 40.08 amu 12.00 amu 3 x 16.00 amu 1 atom of Ca 1 atom of C 3 atoms of O 100.08 amu 40.08 amu 100.08 amu = 0.401 parts Ca 12.00 amu 100.08 amu = 0.120 parts C 48.00 amu 100.08 amu = 0.480 parts O
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The Law of Multiple Proportions Whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
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Lecture 3 - Chapter 2 The Components of Matter 1-1 Please...

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