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Unformatted text preview: ——————————_———_—_—— E El. 3657 '.  Introduction to MATLAB M Purpose and Objectives This lab is an introduction to MATLAB. You will learn how to use MATLAB to do calculations involving real and complex numbers and vectors and matrices, how to plot
functions and how to write Mﬁles. Preparation Little preparatory work is required but a review of calculations with complex numbers
and of basic concepts in vectors and matrices will be useful. These notes assume that you have a basic understanding of Windows and PCs. Seek
assistance from a tutor on these matters if necessary. Using MATLAB To start MATLAB, ﬁnd the MATLAB icon and double click it. A MATLAB command
window will open and the command line prompt» will be displayed. You can have matlab execute a command by entering it following a prompt. For more
advanced work, it is preferable to use a text editor to create a Mﬁle consisting of a
sequence of commands and then executing the M—ﬁle. You will learn to use MATLAB in both ways in this Laboratory session. When you write Mﬁles, you will need to save them
to disk. To keep the disk tidy, enter the MATLAB command » cd \sigsys or something similar, at the beginning of each MATLAB session. This will cause
SlGSYS to be your default directory and any Mﬁles you create will be saved there. If you wish, you may create a subdirectory off SIGSYS and use it instead, but DO NOT save
your ﬁles anywhere else. Experimental Work  A Guided Tutorial Online help is very useful. When you are reasonably adept with MATLAB, it virtually
eliminates the need for hardcopy documentation. To get help with a function called func, use the command help func. Using help signal and help control will display a list of the
functions available in the Signal and Control toolboxes respectively. The command help
help gives more details on using help. You may ﬁnd the Home, End, Esc and (, ’h, ), ‘1‘ keys useful when entering commands. Previous commands are saved in a buffer and can be accessed with the 4‘ and
‘9 keys. This section consists of a series of examples. Work along with the examples by entering the commands following the prompt. (Each command should be terminated with an
ENTER). Basic Calculations » 3*4.5
ans =
13.5000 The results of the calculation are echoed to the screen unless the command is terminated by a semicolon. If the calculation results are not assigned to a speciﬁed variable, they are,
as here, automatically assigned to a variable called ans. A variable is deﬁned in the obvious way. » z = 3*sin(pi/6)
z =
1.5000 sin is one of a number of elementary functions; to see what others are available, type help
elfun. pi is one of a number of predeﬁned variables. Deﬁned variables reside in memory until cleared. To display the value of a variable, simply type the variable name. Use help
with the functions who and clear to learn something more about variables. Complex numbers are expressed in terms of the predeﬁned variables i or j (both deﬁned
as V— l ). A complex number can be entered in several ways.
»c=2+3ﬁ
c =
2.0000 + 3.0000i
» c = 2 + 3j
c =
2.0000 + 3.0000i
» c = 2 + j3
??? Undeﬁned function or variable j3. Observe that 3 j works but j3 does not. You can redeﬁne i (or j or any other such pre
deﬁned variable) but when you clear it it reverts to its predeﬁned value. Some other examples involving complex numbers: » x = j*exp(j*pi/4)
x =
0.7071 + 0.7071i » real(x)
ans =
0.7071 Observe also the results of imag(x), conj(x), abs(x) and angle(x). Note that angles are in
radians.
Matrices and Vectors MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. The basic element is the matrix, vectors and
scalars being considered as special cases of matrices. Square brackets are used when entering a vector or matrix. Elements on the same row are
separated by a space or comma, and rows are separated by a semicolon or carriage return. »x=[1+j 2 3;4 5 6] x =
1.0000 + 1.00001 2.0000 3.0000
4.0000 5.0000 6.0000
»y =11 j;12;23j 3]
y =
1.0000 0 + 1.00001 0 + 1.0000i 2.0000
2.0000  3.0000i 3.0000 Note that you must not use a space on either side of a ‘+’ or ‘’ when entering a complex
number in a matrix. Matrix multiplication must obey the usual rules; observe the effects
of x * y and y * x. Observe also the result of x'. Range generating statements are useful in generating some vectors. »x=0:5
x:
0 1 2 3 4 5 » x = 1 : 0.2 : 2
x =
1.0000 1.2000 1.4000 1.6000 1.8000 2.0000 Note that, if the step size is omitted, it is assumed to be equal to 1. Have a look also at the
functions zeros and ones. Other useful functions are size and length. The following example shows how to generate a vector containing the values 105in(37zr)
for t = 0, 0.1,..., 0.5. »t=0:0.1 : 0.5;
» f= 10 * sin(3*pi*t)
f:
0 8.0902 9.5106 3.0902 5.8779 10.0000 Functions such as sin, exp, sqrt, etc operate on an element by element basis.
Matrices can also be used as components in constructing a larger matrix. An example: » v = [ zeros(1,4), 0nes(1,4) ]
v:
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 As well as the normal matrix operations, point by point operations can be carried out
using the normal operator preceded by a dot. For example, point by point multiplication is carried out using the .* operator. The two matrices involved must be exactly the same
size. »x=[1234];
»y=[1122];
»x.*y
ans=
1 2 6 8 Point by point multiplication of two vectors is equivalent to the inner product. Observe,
by contrast, the result of x' * y. (x * y is, of course, invalid). Accessing elements of a matrix is carried out using an index element or list in
parentheses. The elements of a matrix are indexed from 1. »A=[1234;5678;9101112] A: 1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
»A(2,3)
ans= 7
»A(3,2:4)
ans= 10 11 12
»A(:,4)
ans= 4 8 12 Note the use of range statements to pick off a range of elements, and the use of the colon :
to denote the entire range. Another example: »v=[2 11 5 7];
» f= v(1:2:5)
f:
2 1 7
» f(1:2:7) = v(2:5)
f:
1 0 1 0 5 0 7 The last command shows how ranges can used on the left hand side of an assignment
statement. The unspeciﬁed elements of f are unaffected; in this case, f did not exist prior
to the command, so the unspeciﬁed elements are set to zero. Polynomials and Related Matters In MATLAB, polynomials are conventionally represented by a row vector of the
coefﬁcients of the powers in descending order. The roots of a polynomial are
conventionally written as a column vector. The following example shows how to determine the roots of 2x4 + 6x3 — 9x + 24 using the function roots. »p=[260924]; » r = roots(p) r =
—2.4067 + 1.1077i
2.4067  1.1077i
0.9067 + 0.9420i
0.9067  0.9420i The inverse function poly produces the polynomial from the roots. Observe the effects of
poly(r). To multiply this polynomial by x + 2 , use conv : » c0nv(p, [1 2])
ans=
2 10 12 9 6 48 The function polyder calculates the derivative: » polyder(p)
ans=
8 18 0 9 and polyval evaluates the polynomial at speciﬁed values of the independent variable: » x = [1, 0, 1 4]; » polyval(p, x)
ans = 29 24 23 884 The following example illustrates the solution of a set of linear simultaneous equations.
Suppose we wish to ﬁnd at and y, where l illil=l3l » A=[1 1; l 2];
» b=[5; 0];
» inv(A) * b
ans = 10 5 inv(A) produces the inverse of a square matrix. inv(A)*b can also be written A\b, i.e. A\
denotes multiplying on the left by the inverse of A. (Similarly, IA can be used to multiply
on the right by the inverse of A). Plotting Plots can be drawn in MATLAB using the plot function. The command plot(x, y) plots
values of the vector x on the horizontal axis and values of y on the vertical axis. » t = 0:0.1210; » f= 5*exp(0.8*t).*cos(3*t+pi/4); » plot(t, f)
By default, MATLAB draws a solid yellow line. Observe what happens if you enter
plot(t, f, ‘c.') or plot(t, f, 'gx'). If the vector to be plotted is complex, the real and imaginary values are plotted on the
horizontal and vertical axes respectively. » z = 2 + Sj;
» plot(z, 'x') i.e., plot(z) is equivalent to plot(real(z), imag(z)). Another example involving a complex
vector: » t = 020.001zl;
>> f= 3*exp((—2+j*3*pi)*t);
» plot(f) Most of the time, you will use plot. However, for a quick plot of a function, fplot may be
useful. Some examples: » fplot('sin', [0 2*pi])
» fplot('[sin(x) cos(x)]', [0 2*pi])
For discretetime signals, the stem function is a useful alternative to plot. Try » t = 0:0.1:2;
» f= 5*exp(—0.8*t).*cos(3*t+pi/4);
» stem(t, f) If you use stem(f) instead, the plot is made against the indices of the vector f. M~files To write a new Mﬁle, use the File/New/Mfile menu in MATLAB. To open an existing
ﬁle, use F ile/Open Mfile. The simplest type of Mfile, called a script ﬁle, consists of a list of commands such as you
typed in the above examples. Create a new Mﬁle and enter the three commands of the
previous example. Save the ﬁle as, say, temp.m (it must have a terminator .m). Run the
ﬁle by typing temp at the MATLAB command line prompt. More sophisticated Mﬁles are functions which can accept variables and also return
variables. Create and save a Mfile called sum2.m containing the following text: function s = sum2(a, b) %SUM2 Returns the sum of squares of two inputs
% This is simply a test of writing M ﬁle functions
% Written by Date s = a"2 + bA2; Note that the ﬁle name must match the function name. Note also the comment lines
starting with %. Comment lines up to the ﬁrst noncomment line are returned in reponse
to the help command. Try help sum2. Test the function by entering commands at the
command line. This Mﬁle works if a and b are the same size and square (this includes the case of a and b being scalars). What happens if this is not the case? How would the
function behave if the A were replaced by .A? Modify this Mﬁle to create one called sum23.m containing the following text: function [5, c] = sum23 (a, b) %SUM23 Returns sum of squares and of cubes
% Written by ..... .. Date ..... .. a2 = a"2; b2 = b"2; s = a2 + b2; c = a*a2 + b*b2; and test it with a command such as [sq cu] = sum23(2, 3). Note how more than one
variable can be returned. Note also that the variables a2 and b2 used inside the function
are local to the function (they do not exist outside the function). Control Flow You can control the ﬂow of a MATLAB program as you can in a language such as C.
MATLAB contains for, if and while statements. Here is an example of a for loop: » for n = 1:5
x(n) = n*n;
end
» x
x =
l 4 9 16 25 Avoid overusing for loops. Working with vectors directly is often more concise and more
efﬁcient, e.g., the lines above could be replaced by » n = 1:5;
» x = n.*n
x: 1491625 ...
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 Spring '08
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