Copy of ANTH 209 - Exam I Study Guide (FA '11)

Copy of ANTH 209 - Exam I Study Guide (FA '11) - Doing some...

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Doing some late night studying? 89 viewers! ANTHRO 209/SOC 269 . Food system is a chain of interconnected activities that take place in order to get food into the mouths of people. This includes the processes of the environment, economic and political organization, social relationships and cultural meanings. a. composed of Food production, processing, distribution, marketing and preparation, b. includes knowledge and customs around food and food consumption. vs. foodways- the traditional customs or habits of a group of people concerning food and eating What is culture? The answer to: “How do we know what is food? what is edible? what is good to eat?” 1. Culture involves traditions and customs transmitted through learning that is the basis for the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. 2. Culture is shared understandings that characterize a group of people and distinguishes them from others. Characteristics of culture 1. It is shared, transmitted in groups a. It is symbolic. Cultural meanings are arbitrary. 1. It is integrated – like an interrelated system. 2. Culture can be adaptive and maladaptive. 3. Culture seizes nature – that is, people interact with their cultural construction/ideas about culture rather than directly with nature itself. 4. People use culture actively. Culture is contested. Themes of cross-cultural studies of cannibalism A. Nutritional function: · Incidental – emergency, famine, catastrophes · Long term - part of diet · Biological effects (e.g. kuru, protein source etc.) *Know what kuru means: A fatal disease of the brain occurring in some peoples in the New Guinea and thought to be caused by a virus-like agent such as prion B. Ritual and religious function: Cannibalism is part of mythical and religious symbolism, cannibalism as maintenance and reproduction of social, natural and cosmic order C. Competitive function - warfare D. Dysfunctional symptom (individual psychopathology) E. Cannibalism as part of colonial discourse-European colonialism 3 types of cannibalism 2. Survival Cannibalism: Sometimes humans are put into situations where they must eat each other to survive. The Donner Party is a good example. How could you make yourself eat someone? Even if they were dead and you were starving? 3. Cultural Cannibalism: Weird stuff. Some cultures include cannibalism in their society without
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thinking anything about it. There are African tribes that eat the genitals of dead tribesmen, for they believe this practice increases fertility. *NOTE: In the announcements in compass, they said we don’t need to know the 3 types of cannibalism. Anthropophagy-– or cannibalism is a cultural system Commensality- eating and sharing food as a way to establish and maintain group cohesiveness and identity Food vs. Nonfood – the case of Andalusian agricultural /day laborers 1. The multiple and variable historical and cultural meanings of “non-food” a. A commercial category like those used in supermarkets (i.e. toiletries, appliances, toys,
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Copy of ANTH 209 - Exam I Study Guide (FA '11) - Doing some...

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