G rammar Reference Unit 1 Giving Advice Te give advice, we can use should [not) + infinitive without to, ought (not] + infinitivo, had better (not) + infinitive without to, be better off + gerund, be better/best (not] + infinitive: You should drive more carefully You shouldn‘t leave things to chance. You’re better off taking a train. It’s better/best to shop around. The negative form of ought to is not very common: You ought to study more. You ought not to play computer games se much. Had better [not} expresses strong advice. Had is usually contracted to ‘d: You’d better apologize. You’d better not say that agaín. Tag Questions We use tag questions to ask for confirmation. The question tag is the same tense as the sentence. If the sentence is negative, the tag is affirmative, and vice verse. If the sentence contains a modal verb, the modal is repeated in the question tag: You’re from Brazil, aren’t you? You went home early yesterday, didn’t you? They can’t come to the party, can they? Present Simple AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE I/you/we/they play? I/you/we/they don´t play Does he/she/it play? He/she/it doesn´t play NEGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS Do I/you/we/they/play Yes, I do. /No, I don´t. Does he/she/it/play? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn´t We use the present simple: • To talk about things in general: Silvia dances very well.
Lars speaks Swedish. • To express facts: Water boils at 1 00°C. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. • To give directions: You walk down this street and turn left at the cerner • To talk about the future in timetables: The bus leaves at eight o’clock. • To talk about how often we do things: I often make bread on the weekend. Adverbs of Frequency 100% 80% 60% 40% 10% 0% always, constantly normally, usually often sometimes, occasionally almost never, hardly ever, rarey, seldom never Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb: 1 never watch TV in the evening. She always brushes her teeth after eating. The adverbs sometimes, occasionally, normaly, usually and often can also be placed at the beginning of a sentence: Sometimos ít’s hard te get up in the merning. Habits We express general habits with the present simple: I have eggs for breakfast most mornings. We express characteristics with tend to + infinitive: Americans tend te be more open than British people. We express irritating habits with the present continuous + always: You’re a/ways making a big deal out of things.
We express past habits that are not true now with used to + infinitive we express habits that are true now but not in the past with didn’t use te + infinitive: I used to watch cartoons every merning. She didn’t use to like watching football. Connectors: Addition, Contrast, Reason and Result We use connectors to join two clauses of a sentence or to join sentences in a paragraph. • Connectors can express addition: AND, AS WELL AS, IN ADDITION, ALSO They also make your breath smell.
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- Fall '20
- Grammatical tense, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical tenses, Gerund