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35 evaluation of herbs using histochemical tech

35 evaluation of herbs using histochemical tech -...

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EVALUATION OF HERBAL BIORESOURCES USING HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES Rajesh Rajput Assistant Professor Dept of Veterinary Anatomy & Histology COVAS, CSK HPKV, Palampur India is one of the World’s 12 regions having the largest bioresources. It has 45000 plant species of which 15000-20000 possess proven medicinal value (Krishna Kumar, 1996). Indian Ayurveda is a one of the noteworthy systems of traditional medicine practice that uses mainly medicinal plants for the treatments of ailments in both people and animals. Although the popularity of herbal medicine recorded a sharp decline after the introduction of allopathic chemical drugs, herbal medicines are gaining growing interest because of their cost-effective and eco-friendly attributes. Recent observations indicate that perhaps 80% of the world’s population relies solely upon medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases. Furthermore, a major part of chemically synthesized drugs against infectious agents is in fact derived from natural products or from structures suggested by natural products (Kirby, 1996). For evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of herbal drugs certain special and routine histological and histochemical techniques are of great use in development and use the understanding of general mechanisms inherited in bioresources in response to various biotic and abiotic environmental factors and the potential and useful functions of these mechanisms. This offers ample opportunities for education and research toward creating basic theories and advanced technologies applicable to the development of sustainable agriculture and innovative bioindustry. The evaluation of a crude drug is an essential part of Pharmacognosy. The individual drug plant would undergo many procedures. One of them is Microscopic Assessment, usually for powdered drugs. Its histological appearance must match that of a known sample, and the % of adulteration with foreign substances noted. Another is by Biological Standardization. This method is usually reserved for potent drugs where a chemical assay is not possible or unreliable, for example Digitalis, (Foxglove). The assay carried out by the LD. 50 test (Lethal Dose: 50%). A number of experimental animals are used to determine the minimum dose required to kill 50% of the creatures, within a defined period of time. The various organs of these animals are collected for histological examination to study the toxic effects of such drugs. This helps in drawing conclusions for their safe/ desired use.
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