20 - Lecture Notes: Linguistics Edward Stabler, Winter 2011...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Lecture Notes: Linguistics Edward Stabler, Winter 2011 An introduction to the methods and some basic ideas of theoretical linguistics. Contents 1 The nature of human languages 1 1.1 Productivity, and Zipfs law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Compositionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Another fundamental: creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 One more fundamental: flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5 Are all human languages spoken? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.7 aeh ia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.8 Questions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 Phonetics 7 2.1 Speech sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Articulation and transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Explaining the sounds of human languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.4 Looking ahead: articulatory processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3 Phonology introduced 19 3.1 Aspirated voiceless stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2 Vowel shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.3 Flapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.4 Nasalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.5 The new picture, and remaining questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4 Phonemes and rules of variation 25 4.1 Minimal pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2 Phonological rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3 Ordering the rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.4 Phonology and morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.5 Phonologies vary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 i Stabler - Linguistics 20, Winter 2011 5 Phonotactics, syllables, stress 33 5.1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.2 Syllables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5.3 Syllables 1: feature agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Syllables 1: feature agreement ....
View Full Document

Page1 / 152

20 - Lecture Notes: Linguistics Edward Stabler, Winter 2011...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online