exam0599 - Zoology 120 - Human Anatomy Final Lecture Exam...

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Unformatted text preview: Zoology 120 - Human Anatomy Final Lecture Exam December 13, 1999 2. Block out the correct letter on the answer sheet after carefully reading the question. Use #2 or soft pencil to mark your answer sheet. When erasing, make sure the erasure is complete and clean, otherwise, the computer will mark you answer wrong. 6. You W and pick up your final answer sheet at the beginning of next semester. After that time, all answer sheets will be recycled. 7. If you are interested in being considered for a TA position next fall, please fill out the WW form at the front desk. Read all of the instructions carefully before turning it in to the instructor. What prevents the passage of large proteins and formed elements from blood into the kidney filtrate? Low hydrostatic pressure The basement membrane in the capillary Glomerular capsule Podocytes and pedicles None of the above weave lf osmotic pressure and capsular pressure are higher than the blood hydrostatic pressure, what will happen to blood filtration? a. There will be more fitratrion b. No filtration will take place c. There will be less filtration d. Filtration will not be affected Anti-diuretic hormone has an important effect on urine production. This hormone effects the water permeability of what segments of the kidney tubules. a. Proximal convoluted tubules; distal convoluted tubules b. Renal corpuscles; glomerulus c. Distal convoluted tubules; collecting tubules or ducts d. Glomerular capillaries; renal blood vessels About 100% of glucose and amino acids leave the kidney in the filtrate. Tubular secretion is the process whereby the material from kidney tubules passes back into the blood vessels. a. both sentences are true b. both sentences are false c. the first sentence is true, the second sentence is false d. the first sentence is false, the second sentence is true The most important function of the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus is to: Secrete more water and sodium into the tubular fluid a. b. Release renin in response to a drop in renal blood pressure or blood flow ' c. Decrease blood pressure in the kidney and the renal corpuscle d. Produce antidiuretic hOrmone in response to increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) e. Increase absorption rate from the filtrate The function of the macula densa cells in the kidney'is to: a. Prevent water reabsorption in the collecting ducts b. Decrease urine production 0. Add bicarbonate ions to the tubular fluid in the proximal convoluted tubule d. Monitor NaCl concentration in the tubular fluid (distal convoluted tubule) 10. 11. 12. In comparison to capillaries elsewhere in the body, glomerular capillaries are unique because they: a. Are fenestrated or have pores b Have a lower blood hydrostatic pressure c. Have a thicker basement membrane ' d Have no fenestrations or pores e Reabsorb almost as much fluid as they filter Normally most filtered bicarbonate ions and glucose are reabsorbed in the: a. Proximal convoluted tubule b. Loop of Henle c. Distal convoluted tubule d. Collecting ducts e. Glomerulus An increase in blood pressure in the afferent arterioles of the kidney will result in ALL of the following EXCEPT: , a. An increase release of renin by juxtaglomerular cells b. An increase in glomerular filtration rate c. An increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure d. A somewhat greater output of urine The forces that oppose filtration of substances from the glomerular capillaries into the glomerular (Bowman's) space include: ' a. Capsular pressure b Blood osmotic pressure c. Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure d. A and B e All of the above Given the following statements about the Sertoli cell functions, how many statements are true? 1) Sertoli cells form tight junctions 2) Sertoli cells release inhibin to decrease production of LH 3) Sertoli cells produce Seminiferous tubule fluid 4) Sertoli cells form blood-testis barrier. (DQOO'N hCON-‘O Primary sperrnatocytes contain 46 chromosomes. About 50% of all sperm produced will carry the X chromosome and will contain 23 chromosomes. ' a. Both sentences are correct b. Both sentences are false c. The first sentence is correct, the second sentence is false d The first sentence is false, the second sentence is correct 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. During the monthly menstrual cycle, gH is at its highest levels: a. Just prior to ovulation b 14 days prior to ovulation c. 14 days after ovulation d. Just before menstruationbegins e The levels of LH are constant During the monthly menstrual cycle, progesterone would be at its highest levels: At the time of menstruation Just prior to ovulation Just after ovulation Later in the postovulatory phase weave During the monthly menstrual cycle, when do the glands of the endometrium exhibit nutrient material: a. During the menstrual phase Prior to ovulation b. c. After ovulation and formation of corpus luteum d At all of the different phases of the monthly cycle Maintenance of the male secondary sex characteristics is the responsibility of; a Estrogen b. Testosterone c. FSH d Progesterone e LH function of LH in the male is to: lnhibit progesterone lnitiate testosterone production Increase protein synthesis Inhibit estrogen Stimulate spermatogenesis 5139-9???» Maturation of sperm cells occUrs in the: a. Epididymis b. Seminiferous tubules c. Prostate gland d. Seminal vesicles New stratum functionales arises from: a. Old statrum functionales b. Stratum basalis c. Uterine tube (oviduct) d. Myometrium Levels of progesterone are constant 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. During the spermatogenesis, which of the following cells undergoes a meiotic division to produce haploid cells (cells with 23 single chromosomes)? a. Spermatids b. Secondary spermatocytes c. Primary spermatocytes d. Sperrnatogonia e. Spermatozoa The androgen binding protein is concentrated in: a. Spermatocytes b. The bloodstream c. The seminiferous tubules of the testes d. Spermatozoa e. Accessory male reproductive glands The second meiotic division of oogenesis occurs: a. Before birth b. During fertilization c. After ovulation d. Each month e. Following menstmation The part of the female reproductive system that is shed during menstruation is the: Myometrium Endometrium Stratum functionalis Stratum basalis $1.09.!» The immune system does not normally attack spermatogenic cells because: a. They are recognized as normal cells b. They are like immune cells c. Spermatogenetic cells are protected by the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous tubules d. The acrosome protects the sperm from any antigens that would be recognized as foreign e. Spennatogenetic cells release chemicals that repel anti-body formation The function of the seminal vesicles to: Provide fructose for sperm ATP Promote coagulation of semen in the female reproductive tract Neuralize acids in the female reproductive tract Inhibit the growth of bacteria in semen and the female reproductive tract Provide ATP for the zygote (fertilized egg) 39.9.0.5.” 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. The hormone that stimulates milk production is: 99.0.09) FSH Oxytocin Estrogen LH Prolactin lf fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum: .m b c. d. e ls expelled into the pelvic cavity Begins to secrete low levels of FSH Degenerates into the corpus albicans Continues to secrete progesterone until the next ovulation Both A and C are correct Oral contraceptives for women work by: neon» Hormones secreted from the neurohypophysis are synthesized in the: a. b. c. d. Binding to the estrogen receptors on in the uterus Killing the sperm cells Inhibiting endometrium formation Prevent ovulation Forming a physical barrier around the oocyte Adenohypophysis Thyroid gland Neurohypophysis Hypothalamus One of the primary target organs for oxytocin is the: macaw Ovary Hypothalamus Adrenal cortex Neurohypophysis Mammary gland Thyroid gland releases-its hormone directly following: a. b. c. d. Thyroid releasing factor Thyroid stimulating hormone Thyrocalcitonin Thyroxin The ADH hormone is released from the: EDP-.057!” Kidney Hypothalamus Neurohypophysis Adrenal cortex Adenohypophysis 37. 39. Hormones produced in the hypothalamus are stored in the: Anterior pituitary gland only Posterior pituitary gland only Thyroid gland Adrenal cortex Both the anterior and posterior pituitary gland primary effect of parathyroid gland is to: Increase blood glucose Decrease blood glucose Increase excretion of calcium ions in urine Increase blood calcium Decrease blood calcium stimulus for increasing the release of thyrocalcitonin hormone is: High levels of calcium in the blood Low levels of calcium in the blood TSH secretion Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus Calcitonin snapping 99.0.09ng 99.0mm The cell organelle responsible for packaging secretory granules is: a. Golgi complex b. Lysosomes c. Mitochondria d. Rough endoplasmic reticulum The transitional epithelium functions by providing the cells with the ability for". a. Protection b. Absorption c. Conduction d. Excretion e. Extension MyogIobin is found in ; it binds ? a. Muscle cells; oxygen b. Sarcoplasmic reticulum; calcium 0. ATP; creative phosphate cl. Sarcomeres; calcium What happens in the sarcomere during muscular relaxation? Z bands come closer together Sarcomere enlarges T tubules become larger Actin and myosin shorten 9.0m» 40. An inhibitory neurotransmitter wouldainduce in the nerve fiber or neuron. a. Depolarization b. Hyperpolarization c. Repolarization f d. Polarization 41. In a heart muscle what lasts much longer in comparison to skeletal muscle? a. Refractory period b. Latent period c. Contraction period d. Relaxation period e. Stimulatory period 42. If acetylcholine is inactivated or destroyed, what happens to skeletal muscle function? a. Muscle contractions continue without interruptions b. Muscle contractions cease c. Muscle contractions become weak d. Muscle contractions are intermittent 43. When the membrane potential of a neuron shifts from —70 mV to -55 mV,, this is called: a. Depolarization b. Repolarization c. Hyperpolarization d Threshold level 45. 47. 49. Damage to the occipital lobe will cause: a. b. c. d. e. Severe motor and sensory deficits Severe sensory defects and visual deficits Loss of spinal reflex activity Severe motor deficits Severe visual deficits The cerebrospinal fluid surrounds: a. b. c. d. Under normal conditions, red blood cells do not contain a much a. b. c. d. Spinal cord, brain, cerebellum Choroid plexus and ventricles Blood vessels and venous sinuses on brain All of the above in their cytoplasm Hemoglobin, cytoplasmic organelles Nucleus, myoglobin Cytoplasm organelles, myoglobin Nucleus, hemoglobin but contain injecting epinephrine into the heart musculature will have the same effect as stimulating the: a. Vagus nerve b. Parasympathetic division 0. Sympathetic division d. Cortex What chemical deactivates the neurotransmitter in skeletal mUscle? a. Inhibin b. Calcium c. Acetylcholinesterase d. Acetylcholine Which one of the following nerve fibers would conduct nerve impulses the fastest? a. b. c. d. Large diameter, unmyelinated Large diameter, myelinated Small diameter, unmyelinated Small diameter, myelinated Which structure(s) in the fetus allow some of the blood to bypass the fetal lungs? a. b. c. d. Ductus deferens Ductus venosus Ductus arteriosus Pulmonary tmnk 51. 52. 53. 55. 57. A resting neuron, i.e. not conducting én impulse: a. b. c. d. e. Has a net positive charge outside the plasma membrane Exhibits a difference in Na+ and K' concentrations and electrical charge between inside and outside the plasma membrane Exhibits active transport of Na” out of the cell and K“ into the cell - Has a potential of about -70 mV All of the above are correct The function of saliva includes: a. b. c. d. The hormone responsible for stimulating HCI secretion and pepsinogen secretion Enzymatic digestion of proteins and fats in the stomach Enzymatic digestion carbohydreates in the mouth Inhibition of gastric secretion None of the above by the gastric glands in the stomach is: a. b c. d. e Insulin Pepsin Chymotrypsin Gastrin Trypsin Which organ contains digestive enzymes in the microvilli? a. b. c. d. Large intestine Small intestine Stomach Esophagus The major function of bicarbonate secretion into duodenum is to:' a. b. c. d. Bile aids digestion by digesting the fat molecules. Once digested, the fat molecules Stimulate gut motility Improve absorption from intestines Increase lubrication of intestinal lumen Neutralize acidic chyme are then absorbed into the blood Vessels in the small intestine. a. b. c. d. Both sentences are true Both sentences are false The first sentence is true but the second sentence is false The first sentence is false but the second sentence is true Hydrochloric acid aids in digestion by: a. b. c. d. Activating pepsinogen to pepsin Decreasing stomach motility Decreasing stomach emptying Digesting fats 58. 59. 61. 62. 63. a. b. c. d. Pancreatic islet cells (islets of Langerhans) are responsible for? Bicarbonate secretion Production of the pancreatic enzymes Production of hormone insulin and glucagon Increased production of gastric juices The hormone glucagon is produced in order to: a. b. c. d. Increase sugar absorption into body cells Decrease sugar levels in blood Increase sugar level in blood Eliminate more sugar in urine Bicarbonates that reach duodenum are produced in: sunny!» if there is an increased amount of undigested fat in the feces, it could indicate a Stomach Liver Pancreas Duodenal epithelium Saliva problem with the function of which digestiave organ: $099.69) If you want the person to fill full for a long time after a meal, the meal should contain Pancreas Stomach Liver Duodenum Colon increased amounts of: sweeps» The a b no Fats Liquids Carbohydrates Proteins All kinds of food products large intestine's role in nutrient absorption is: Small, since it mainly absorbs water Large, since it produces enzymes and absorbs all remaining undigested material Non-existent, since no absorption takes place here As important as the small intestine 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. Cells such as neutrophils, microglia, i‘nonocytes are all function to: a. b c. cl. e Increase secretory action of tissues Increased anti-body production Defend body against foreign substances All of the above None of the above The most prevalent organelles present in macrophage cells are: shapes» Lysosomes Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleoli Glucose transport in a cell is an example of: a. b c. d. e Skull bones develop through an intramembranous ossification. The rest of the Filtration Dialysis Osmosis Active transport Diffusion bones in the body develop from a cartilage model: a. b. c. d The first sentence is true; the second sentence is false Both sentences are false Both sentences are true The first sentence is false; the second sentence is true The developing bone increases in length by cell growth in: ' a. b. c. d The important ion needed for contractions of the skeletal muscle is shapes» Bone marrow Ossification center Blood vessel entrance Epiphyseal plate . It is stored in ’ ? Myoglobin, sarcoplasm Sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm Calcium, sarcoplasmic reticulum Calsequestrin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Synaptic cleft, T-tubules 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. Which of the following is a part of the respiratory system where both air conduction and gas exchange can take place? a. Trachea b. Bronchi c. Alveoli d. Respiratory bronchiole e. Terminal bronchiole What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during breathing: a. Air pressure b. Surfactant c Fluid in lungs d Strong alveoli walls Which effects cause decreased association of oxygen with hemoglobin? a. Increased temperature b. Acidity of blood c. Low P02 d. All above Damage to which tracts could result in the loss of sensation, especially in the hands and fingers: Ventral spinothalamic Lateral spinothalamic Spinocerebellar Lateral corticospinal Dorsal columns (fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus) $0510.69 Thalamus is important because: a All motor functions start here b. Third order neurons of the sensory axons synapse here c. Motor tract from cortex pass through here d Regulates rdiac and respiratory centers e integrates and interprets voluntary responses Ciliated epithelium is found in structures that a. Absorb material b. Are stretched often 0. Secrete material d. Move cells or particulate matter over cell surfaces 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. Ventricular depolarization corresponds to which of the following portions of the ECG? a. QRS complex b. P wave ( c. T wave :1" d. P-T waves The foramen ovale refers to: a. An opening between the two ventricles prior to birth b. An opening between the two atria prior to birth 0. A remnant in the adult heart of fossa ovalis d. A fetal connection between the pulmonary trunk and aortic arch Increased acidity of the blood due to increased carbon dioxide levels would be compensated for by: Increased respiration Decreased respiration No change in the respiratory rate Increased heart rate Increased blood volume sheave Autonomic centers that control cardiac and respiratory centers are located in: a. Cortex b. Medulla c. Spinal cord d. Cerebellum e. Heart and lungs What word combination concerning different structures or their functions is incorrect? a. Gap junctions - heart muscle b. Blood testis barrier - sustentacular (sertoli) cell c. Cilia — respiratory tube d. Emulsification of fats - stomach Which statement describes homeostasis correctly? a. The internal environment is maintained relatively constant b. The internal environment is constantly changing c. The extemal environment is relatively constant d. Homeostasis is not changed during body functions Which statement describes the cells correctly? a. All have a nucleus b. All have a stem cell c. All appear similar d. All are surrounded by a membrane 83. 87. 88. 89'. Cell type not seen in blood: a. Neutrophils b. Basophils c. Eosinophils d. Megakaryocytes Which important rule or criterion governs muscle contraction and nerve stimulation? a. All or none law b. The nerve and muscle can respond to any stimulation c. No rule governs muscle contraction or nerve conduction (stimulation) d. Muscle responds to all stimuli while nerve only to strong stimuli Increase in muscle size and mass is called: a. Muscle fatigue b. Denervation c. Muscle atrophy d. Muscle hypertrophy Receptors for different molecules in give cells are located in: a. Phospholipids b. Cytoplasm c. Integral proteins d. Cell organelles Which of the following is (are) 991 a characteristic(s) feature(s) of the cell membrane? a. Contains receptors b. Contains transport (carrier) molecules c. Shows selective permeability d. Is fenestrated or contains pores What causes relaxation in the sarcomere? a. Removal of calcium b. Release of calcium into sarcomere 0. Removal of acetylcholinesterase d. Release of acetylcholine Which reflex is normally exhibited during a tap on the patellar tendon? a. Flexor-withdrawal reflex b. Stretch reflex c. Crossed-extensor reflex d. Extensor reflex 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. What is the correct description of a heart pacemaker? a. It consists of specialized neurons b. It consists of modified cardiac muscle cells c. It consists of pressure receptor cells d. It consists of cells locatedin the hypothalamus Where are the brush border enzymes located? a. In the stomach b. In the small intestine lumen c. In the pancreas d. In the microvilli of intestinal epithelium Under normal conditions, where are the white and red blood cells produced? a. Long bones b. Red bone marrow c. Connective tissue d. Lymph nodes and liver To what stimulus do you quickly adopt? a. Smell b. Sound 0. Touch d. Pain e. All except d Acetylcholinesterase functions by: a. Deactivating acetylcholine b. Stimulating skeletal muscle 0. Causing calcium release d. Inducing muscle contraction The contents of acrosome are similar to what cell organelle: a. Lysosome b. Golgi complex c. Nucleus ‘ d. Mitochondria e. Rough endoplasmic reticulum Which endocrine gland(s) does(do) not directly respond to the releasing hormones of the pituitary gland? a. Thyroid b. Parathyroid c. Adrenal d. All of the above 97. Blood clots in the presence of: a. Heparin b. Calcium c. Sodium d. Plasma 98. Lungs recoil after respiration due to the: a. Transitional epithelium b. Elastic connective tissue fibers c. Decreased atmosphere pressure d. Lubricating fluid 99. lines are far apart in the sarcomere during? Relaxation Teutonic contraction Latent period Muscle degeneration .D-PFTPN 100. Damage to the NaIK pump in the cell membrane will effect which functions? a. Facilitated diffusion b. Active transport c. Osmosis d. Dialysis NOTE: If you want to be considered for a Teaching Assistant position in the laboratory portion of this course next fall, please come to the front desk and fill out the form. ...
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exam0599 - Zoology 120 - Human Anatomy Final Lecture Exam...

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