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Unformatted text preview: HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY ANTH 695 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Instructor: Benjamin Auerbach, Ph.D. Contact information: Office: 229 South Stadium Hall Office hours: Mondays, 3:00 – 5:00 P.M., or by appointment E- mail: Lab instructor: Rebecca Kelso, M.A. Contact information: Office: 521 South Stadium Hall E- mail: Time: Lecture and lab* Mondays: 8:00 AM – 11:00 AM Wednesdays: 9:00 AM – 11:00 AM Fridays: 8:00 AM – 11:00 AM Special Topics in Anatomy Lecture Series Fridays: 12:20 PM – 1:10 PM * Dissections may exceed the scheduled time. Dr. Auerbach and Ms. Kelso will be available in the lab on dissection days until 1:00 P.M. Students are permitted, but not encouraged to remain in the lab after Dr. Auerbach and Ms. Kelso have left. Location: Lecture and lab: 606 HESLER BIOLOGY BUILDING Special topics lectures: 33 ALUMNI MEMORIAL BUILDING Course description: Human Gross Anatomy provides advanced graduate students with in depth anatomical training. A thorough comprehension of anatomy is at the core of biological anthropology and biomedical engineering. Skeletal function and form, often subjects of analysis in these fields, cannot be fully interpreted and understood without the context of the soft tissues—from muscles and ligaments to blood vessels and organs—that surround and interact with the bones. Using cadaver- based dissection, students experience the best method by which to learn about the structures of the human body, their integration, and, most importantly, variation among humans. 1 The course consists of three combined subjects: an anatomy lecture course, a laboratory dissection course, and an overview of human development. These topics are paired with weekly guest lectures (the Special Topics in Anatomy Lecture Series) that bridge the textbook and lab knowledge with medicine, research and practical applications. This is an intensive course, requiring hours of study both in the lab and from texts, but it rewards you for those hours. Special emphasis is placed on functional anatomy of the body, though an understanding of development (embryology) and pathology (clinical knowledge) is also stressed. Course textbooks: Human gross anatomy uses four different books to cover the various topics of the course: regional anatomy, functional anatomy, developmental biology, and gross anatomical dissection. These are all required for the course. Additional readings will be made available via the course web site (Blackboard) for topics not covered in these publications, and for the Special Topics Lectures. Students are encouraged to seek additional resources (e.g., additional anatomical atlases, study guides) if they prove useful, though all of the course content is more than adequately covered in the four books assigned for the course. Copies of all textbooks may be purchased through the University Book Store. Principal textbook: Keith L. Moore, Arther F. Dalley, Anne M.R. Agur. 2010. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Sixth edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 978- 07817- 7525- 0 Embryology textbook: Gary C. Schoenwolf, Steve B. Bleyl, Philip R Brauer, Philippa H. Francis- West. 2009. Larsen’s Human Embryology. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier. ISBN: 978- 0- 443- 06811- 9 Anatomical atlas: Anne Gilroy, Brian R. MacPherson, Lawrence M. Ross. 2008. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers. ISBN: 978- 1604060621 Anatomical dissector: Patrick W. Tank. 2009. Grant’s Dissector. Fourteenth edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN: 978- 0- 7817- 7431- 4. YOU WILL NOT ALWAYS FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE DISSECTOR VERBATIM. A LIST OF DISSECTION SUGGESTIONS AND ANNOTATIONS TO THE DISSECTOR ARE PROVIDED IN THE LABORATORY MANUAL. BE SURE TO READ THESE, ALONG WITH THE DISSECTOR, BEFORE YOU COME TO LAB!!! 2 Optionally, you may be interested in acquiring copies of the following supplemental books: Langdon, John H. 2005. The Human Strategy: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Anatomy. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978- 0- 19- 516735- 1. Whitaker, Robert H. and Neil R. Borley. 2010. Instant Anatomy. Fourth edition. New York: Wiley- Blackwell. ISBN 978- 1- 4051- 9961- 2. Whittle, Michael W. 2007. Gait Analysis: An Introduction. Fourth edition. New York: Butterworth Heinemann (Elsevier). ISBN: 978- 0- 7506- 8883- 3. Course objectives: By the end of the course, you should: • have developed an advanced understanding of human anatomy & some functional anatomy • possess a good basic comprehension of human developmental biology • have learned the fine dissection skills necessary to identify, isolate and preserve the delicate structures encountered throughout the course • be able to relate the anatomical knowledge gained to research and practical applications Course layout: Two major components comprise the course: lectures and dissection labs. However, the structure and content of these vary further. In addition, there are weekly guest lectures that are required components of the course (see below). Be sure to reference the course schedule at the end of the syllabus. Lectures occur on most meeting days of the course, and will be of variable length. Some lectures may be as short as 30 or 45 minutes, while others will extend through the entire assigned meeting time. Dr. Auerbach will deliver all lectures. Topics of lectures include general anatomy, functional anatomy, and human development. All lectures for the course will occur prior to scheduled laboratory dissection sessions (with the notable exception of the Special Topics Lectures on Fridays). Unless otherwise noted in the schedule, be sure to complete readings for each day before the lecture. There are 24 scheduled dissections in the course. Formal lectures are brief on the days in which they precede dissection. Be aware that twelve lab periods are not preceded by formal lectures (see dissections 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, & 23). Be prepared to spend at least two hours dissecting in each lab. Many dissections, especially cleaning up structures, will most likely take longer than the assigned time. Although the course is scheduled to finish at 11:00 on all days, Dr. Auerbach and Ms. Kelso will remain in the lab until 1:00 P.M. Students are permitted to continue dissections in the lab outside of scheduled course hours. Specific instructions for 3 accessing the lab and policy for dissecting outside of course hours will be discussed during the first day of the course. (Also see Laboratory and Dissection Safety below.) Special Topics in Anatomy Lecture Series: Nine guest lectures are scheduled to occur on Fridays throughout the course. Clinicians and researchers from multiple disciplines and from various institutions will be visiting to share their knowledge and research. All of these visitors have extensive anatomical training, and all will participate in laboratory dissections in addition to their guest lectures. Lectures will link anatomical knowledge with their areas of research and practical application. Given the rare and exceptional opportunity the Special Topics in Anatomy Lectures provide, they are included as a required (though not assessed) portion of the course. Students and faculty not enrolled in the course but who are interested are welcome to attend these lectures. Course web site: All course communication, study aids, external web resources, and supplementary readings will be available via Online@UT the University of Tennessee Blackboard service ( Be sure to check this site frequently for updates. LABORATORY AND DISSECTION SAFETY This section is not meant to alarm you, but you must be aware of the safety considerations that accompany human gross anatomy dissection. All students enrolled in this course must attend the laboratory safety lecture on the 10th of January before being permitted to dissect. We are fortunate to be able to provide cadavers for use in this course. Remember that these individuals donated their bodies in order to further your pursuit of knowledge about human anatomy. Treat their bodies with respect and deference, and make the best possible use of their gift in your dissections. (After all, advanced gross anatomy courses that use human cadavers are rarely taught outside of medical institutions.) A written set of guidelines will be provided to you on the first day of the course. You must read through these and sign the consent and waiver form at the end of the guidelines before you are allowed to participate in dissections. Much of these rules concern your safety in the laboratory. This includes proper handling of biological waste generated by the dissection process, the proper handling of sharp dissection equipment (namely disposable scalpels), and knowledge of what to do in the case of emergencies or accidents in the dissection lab. Problems, of course, are not anticipated, but an awareness of correct procedures will minimize the consequences should problems arise. Any lab problems must be reported to Dr. Auerbach or to Ms. Kelso. 4 Be aware that hazardous chemicals are used in the preservation of human cadavers, namely a small concentration of formaldehyde, and a larger concentration of phenol suspended in an aqueous solution including glycerin and methanol. DIRECT SKIN CONTACT WITH THIS PRESERVATIVE FLUID WILL CAUSE IRRITATION AND MAY LEAD TO MORE SERIOUS COMPLICATIONS. For this reason, all students must wear neoprene gloves (which are rated to resist phenol) and use a neoprene apron when dissecting. ANY STUDENT WITH MEDICAL CONDITIONS THAT MAY BE AFFECTED BY THESE DISSECTIONS (RESPIRATORY ILLNESS, PREGNANCY, CIRCULATORY PROBLEMS, OR DIABETES) OR WHO HAVE CONCERNS SHOULD CONTACT DR. AUERBACH BEFORE THE FIRST CLASS MEETING. Generally, use common sense in the lab. Do not leave sharp tools in places where others may accidentally bump into them, and do not lose the tools within or under the cadaver (a common but entirely preventable occurrence). Do not touch exposed skin with gloved hands. Wear facial protection when a chance of splatter is possible (e.g., during use of the Stryker saw). Do not work until fatigued in the lab; take breaks for water and to get off your feet. Be sure to properly dispose of all waste. See the list of guidelines provided on the first day of class for more information about the specific treatment of permanent laboratory equipment and for details on waste disposal, procedures for phenol exposure, and general laboratory safety. Personal laboratory equipment: The laboratory component of this course requires proper equipment for the dissection of cadavers. Students must acquire the following equipment before the beginning of the course. Dr. Auerbach will place bulk orders for these supplies in early December; please contact him about pricing for the equipment should you wish to participate in the bulk order (which is strongly recommended): - full anatomical dissection kit (McCoy Medical advanced dissection kit) - disposable neoprene surgical gloves & reusable neoprene gauntlets - disposable surgical blades - a reusable neoprene apron Students are encouraged to invest in scrubs or to wear clothing that can be soiled. In addition, closed- toe shoes with good traction are required for the laboratory. No exceptions will be made on this point; students wearing improper footwear will not be permitted to dissect. Study materials: Anatomical atlases will be made available to students in the lab for reference during dissection, though students are encouraged to acquire used copies of atlases in addition 5 to these to provide multiple perspectives. Models of some anatomical structures will occasionally be made available to students in the laboratory, though these models may not leave the lab. Human crania will also be provided during the head and neck section, though these too may not be removed from the lab. Skeletal study will help you make sense of much of the soft anatomy encountered throughout the course, and so it would benefit you to spend time studying or refreshing your osteological knowledge. A special arrangement has been made with the Forensic Anthropology Center to allow access during normal business hours (9:00 AM to 4:30 PM, Tuesdays and Thursdays) to select skeletons from the William Bass Skeletal Collection. These skeletons will be available in 221 East Stadium Hall. Space is limited in the collection, so try to stagger your visits with classmates. Assessment: There are three forms of evaluation used during the course: lecture written exams, laboratory practical exams, and oral laboratory presentations. Each is explained below, and the dates for all of these are highlighted in grey boxes in the course schedule. Lecture written exams: There are four written lecture exams. The first is a short exam on the thorax only, designed to give you a taste of the exam layout and content for the course. The remaining three exams are full- length tests that cover sections of the course divided thematically and regionally. All lecture exams will cover material from the principal textbook (Moore et al.), readings from the human developmental biology textbook (Schoenwolf et al.), and lectures supplementing these two textbooks. Question forms on these exams will be short answer, fill- in- the- blank, identification (using anatomical drawings), and some true- false and matching. Written exams from prior years of the course are available on the course web site. Laboratory practical exams: Three laboratory practical exams occur simultaneously with the three full- length lecture exams. You will be given an answer form and have free access during the testing period to complete answers to questions on flagged structures located on the cadavers or models. These lab practical exams involve identification of structures from the cadavers, models, and isolated bones, as well as some functional questions. Laboratory oral presentations: Once during the semester, each student will be asked to present on the completed dissections on the last section of the course. Presentations may occur on one of five possible days throughout the course, and will cover specific topics reflecting recent dissections. Guidelines for the material that must be covered during these presentations may be found in the lab manual along with dissector annotations. These oral presentations must be completed in front of Dr. Auerbach and all dissection partners from the presenter’s table, and 6 may take no longer than twenty minutes. As a maximum of four students will be dissecting at each table, each student at each table is only responsible for one presentation. Presentations will be graded as fail, pass, and high pass, which translate into scores of 60, 90, and 100 points out of 100 possible points. (High passes require a demonstration of good organization of knowledge, a clear presentation of the required topics, and an ability to show information and synthesize relationships beyond guideline requirements.) Exams and points: The point values for assessment are given below. A total of 900 points are available in the course, and are divided into letter grades according to the table following the point breakdown. Thorax mini lecture exam 50 points TAPP lecture exam 200 points TAPP lab practical exam 50 points Back & limbs lecture exam 200 points Back & limbs lab practical exam 50 points Head & neck lecture exam 200 points Head & neck lab practical exam 50 points Lab oral presentation 100 points TOTAL 900 points Letter grades: A: 775- 900 B: 650- 774 C: 525- 649 D: <525 Tips for getting the most out of the course: Any course on human anatomy is challenging but rewarding. You are taking this course in preparation for a professional career in which anatomical knowledge will be essential. Even if you are not taking this for professional reasons, knowledge of your anatomy has long- term practical use. So, remember that you are not learning this information for the exam, but for the rest of your life, professional or otherwise. A golden rule for anatomy: DON’T GET BEHIND! It is to your advantage to keep up with the reading and keep reviewing throughout the course. I strong encourage you to review nightly, and read both for the lecture and, especially, the lab dissections ahead of time. Cramming in anatomy just before the exam isn’t to your advantage. Some learning is, admittedly, rote memorization, but much of anatomical study involves integrating functions and intuiting spatial relationships. In short, give time to reading anatomy each day. Make flashcards. Draw schematics of blood flow or nerves & their branches. Create tables of muscles and their functions. These techniques will help you much more than all- nighters before exams. 7 A number of resources are available as study aids, and I would recommend that you employ these as you find them to be useful in supplementing your primary studying. Web sites that are recommended for mnemonics, cross- sectional imagery, and embryology are available as “External Links” on the course Blackboard web site. There are also good summary study guides, the best of which is Instant Anatomy (see reference on page 3); this volume is recommended to help you to review vasculature, nerve distributions, and anatomical spatial relationships. Students with disabilities: If you require accommodation because of special needs in learning, please contact the Office of Disability Services at 2227 Dunford Hall (974- 6087). Please also contact Dr. Auerbach immediately via e- mail after you register with the Office of Disability Services. Arrangements will be made to adjust exams to fit your needs. Make- up policy: Short of legitimate professional, religious, legal or medical reasons, you will not be eligible to take examinations at any time other than those that are officially designated. If you must miss an exam, you must contact Dr. Auerbach before the examinations. 8 COURSE SCHEDULE – ANTH 695 – SPRING 2012 COA – Clinically Oriented Anatomy LHE – Larsen’s Human Embryology GD – Grant’s Dissector STAL – Special topics lecture SPECIAL TOPICS LECTURE TITLES WILL BE POSTED THROUGHOUT THE SEMESTER DATE 10 JANUARY 11 JANUARY 13 JANUARY 17 JANUARY 18 JANUARY 20 JANUARY 23 JANUARY LECTURES Special meeting: Lab safety Introduction to the course Anatomical terminology and orientation Systemic overview of anatomy The nervous system Introduction to the thorax & thoracic wall Pleural cavity & lungs NO STAL DISSECTION / LAB READINGS GD: 1-4 COA: 1-70 COA: 71-104 1. Thoracic wall & pleural cavity Development of the embryo: weeks 1-4 Heart & middle mediastinum Posterior mediastinum Development of the heart Introduction to the abdominal wall & inguinal canal STAL: Dr. Arthur Kumpf (private practice: plastic and reconstructive surgery) MINI EXAM: Thorax Abdominal viscera 2. Heart and the mediastinum 3. Anterior abdominal wall & inguinal canal 25 JANUARY Development of the gut 4. Abdominal cavity I 27 JANUARY Introduction to the pelvis STAL: Dr. John Bach (Fellow, Dept. of Surgery, The Ohio State University) 5. Abdominal cavity II 9 COA: 106-127 GD: 24-28; 54-65 LHE: 15-130 (read after lecture) LHE: 337-383 (and optionally chapter 13) COA: 127-180 COA: 182-216 GD: 65-77 GD: 78-88 COA: 217-324 (read after lecture) LHE: 435-477 GD: 88-105 COA: 327-362 GD: 105-112 DATE 30 JANUARY LECTURES DISSECTION / LAB Pelvic viscera Perineum 6. Perineum 1 FEBRUARY 3 FEBRUARY 6 FEBRUARY 7. Pelvic cavity Urogenital development TAPP review No STAL EXAM: Thorax, abdomen, pelvis & perineum (TAPP) FIRST LAB DISSECTION PRESENTATION: TAPP The thigh and gluteal region Development of the limbs 10 FEBRUARY The hip & knee STAL: Dr. Jason Organ (Saint Louis University School of Medicine) 8. Anterior thigh & medial thigh 13 FEBRUARY The leg and the foot 9. Gluteal region and posterior thigh 15 FEBRUARY 20 FEBRUARY LHE: 479-541 LAB PRACTICAL EXAM: Thorax, abdomen, pelvis & perineum 8 FEBRUARY 17 FEBRUARY READINGS COA: 362-438 GD: 113-116 GD: 133-137 (females) GD: 117-124 (males) GD: 140-147 GD: 137-140 (females) GD: 124-133 (males) 10. Popliteal region and posterior leg Gait STAL: Dr. Libby Cowgill (University of Missouri – Columbia) 11. Anterior & lateral leg COA: 510-541 COA: 545-583 LHE: 617-643 (and optionally chapter 8) COA: 626-647 COA: 584-587 GD: 148-159 COA: 587-625 GD: 159-165 GD: 165-172 COA: 542-544 Whittle: “Normal gait” GD: 172-175 12. The foot / Lower limb dissection GD: 175-180 catch-up NO CLASS 22 & 24 FEBRUARY (American Academy of Forensic Science Annual Meeting) 10 DATE 27 FEBRUARY LECTURES DISSECTION / LAB SECOND LAB DISSECTION PRESENTATION: LOWER LIMB 13. The back The back 29 FEBRUARY 2 MARCH The brachial plexus / The arm No STAL 5 MARCH The forearm and hand 12 MARCH 14 MARCH 16 MARCH 26 MARCH 28 MARCH 30 MARCH COA: 440-507 GD: 5-13 COA: 672-744 15. The arm COA: 744-793 GD: 19-32 GD: 32-36 16. The forearm and the hand GD: 36-53 14. The axilla 7 MARCH 9 MARCH READINGS Back and limbs review STAL: Dr. Natalie Shirley (Lincoln Memorial University School of Osteopathic Medicine) LAB PRACTICAL EXAM: Back & limbs THIRD LAB DISSECTION PRESENTATION: UPPER LIMB EXAM: Back & limbs Introduction to the head and neck Neck triangles, muscles & viscera (1st half) Completion of neck lecture (2nd half) STAL: Dr. Mark Teaford (Highpoint University) [formerly director of medical school gross 17. Posterior neck anatomy course at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine] NO CLASS WEEK OF 19-23 MARCH (SPRING BREAK) COA: 822-836 COA: 982-1021 COA: 982-1021 GD: 8-9; 13-14 GD: 186-189 COA: 842-860 COA: 914-926; 951-956 COA: 1054-1060 COA: 1060-1082 COA: 865-888 The face & muscles of mastication Cranial nerves I Cranial nerves II Brain, blood flow, meninges, and ventricles STAL: Dr. Laura Shackelford (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) 18. Anterior neck 11 GD: 190-198 DATE 2 APRIL LECTURES The eye and orbit DISSECTION / LAB 19. Superficial face, parotid & temporal regions 20. Brain (& completion of deep face) READINGS COA: 889-914 GD: 199-214 GD: 208-227 STAL: Dr. Valerie DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine) 21. The orbit & extra lab time GD: 227-233 4 APRIL 5 APRIL FOURTH LAB DISSECTION 9 APRIL Deep face (oral and nasal cavities) PRESENTATION: CRANIAL COA: 928-965 NERVES, EYE & FACE NO CLASS 11 & 13 APRIL (American Association of Physical Anthropologists Annual Meeting | Society for American Archaeology Annual Meeting) The pharynx COA: 966-980 16 APRIL The larynx & ear COA: 1021-1040 22. Head disarticulation, pharynx, & 18 APRIL GD: 234-240 bisection of the head STAL: Dr. Adam Sylvester (Max Planck Institute 20 APRIL 23. Nasal and oral cavities GD: 240-252 for Evolutionary Anthropology) NO CLASS 23 & 25 APRIL (American Association of Anatomists Annual Meeting) LHE: 247-295 27 APRIL Development of the head 24. Larynx & the ear LHE: 543-615 GD: 252-259 30 APRIL Head and neck review (time to be determined) FIFTH LAB DISSECTION WEEK of 1 MAY PRESENTATION: NECK, DEEP FACE, LARYNX LAB PRACTICAL EXAM: Head and 7 MAY EXAM: Head and neck neck 12 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BI 200 taught by Professor Potter during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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