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GrossAnatLectNotes - 2010 CVM 6100 Veterinary Gross Anatomy...

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2010 CVM 6100 Veterinary Gross Anatomy General Anatomy & Carnivore Anatomy Lecture Notes by Thomas F. Fletcher, DVM, PhD and Christina E. Clarkson, DVM, PhD
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± CONTENTS Connective Tissue Structures ........................................ 3 Osteology ......................................................................... 5 Arthrology ....................................................................... 7 Myology ......................................................................... 10 Biomechanics and Locomotion .................................... 12 Serous Membranes and Cavities ................................. 15 Formation of Serous Cavities ...................................... 17 Nervous System ............................................................. 19 Autonomic Nervous System ......................................... 23 Abdominal Viscera ....................................................... 27 Pelvis, Perineum and Micturition ............................... 32 Female Genitalia ........................................................... 35 Male Genitalia ............................................................... 37 Head Features (Lectures 1 and 2) ............................... 40 Cranial Nerves .............................................................. 44
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± Connective Tissue Structures Histologic types of connective tissue (c.t.): 1] Loose areolar c.t. — low fiber density, contains spaces that can be filled with fat or fluid (edema) [found: throughout body, under skin as superficial fascia and in many places as deep fascia] 2] Dense irregularly arranged c.t. — high density of collagen fibers, oriented in variable directions [found: dermis; deep fascia in some locations; periosteum; fibrous joint capsule] 3] Dense regularly arranged c.t. — high density of parallel fibers, forming sheets, bands, or cords [found: aponeuroses; ligaments; tendons] Connective tissue structures identifiable in gross anatomy: Dermis [G. skin] — the physically tough/strong component of skin (deep to epidermis) Tendon — attaches muscle to bone (called aponeurosis when sheet-like) Ligament — attaches bone to bone (usually thickenings of fibrous joint capsules) [Note: visceral ligaments located in body cavities are entirely different structures] Fascia [L. band] — collagenous fibrous tissue that hold the body together superficial fascia = subcutaneous tissue between skin & muscles/bone (body wall) - regionally variable in amount (site for subcutaneous injection) - contains: cutaneous muscle, mammary tissue, fat (also edema fluid) [ e.g., cutaneous trunci m.; superficial muscles of facial expression] deep fascia = packing/binding tissue surrounding muscles, bones, & organs - compartmentalize skeletal muscles & gives rise to aponeuroses - forms several named structures, viz., • named regional fascia, e.g., thoraco-lumbar fascia, fascia lata, etc. (fascia is named where it is thick & distinct (i.e., dense c.t. vs. loose areolar c.t.) retinaculum [L. rope or cable] fascia that binds passing tendons to the surface of the carpus or tarsus (also, transverse humeral retinaculum) raphe [G. seam] fascia that joins right and left counterparts of a par- ticular muscle at the midline (e.g., ventral abdomen = linea alba) epimysium [G. on + muscle] fascia covering the surface of a muscle, depending on the muscle, it may be thin (transparent) or dense (opaque & white); also, perimysium = c.t. around muscle fascicles; and endomysium = c.t. within muscle fascicles) Transverse section through a skeletal muscle: 1 = epimysium; 2 = perimysium; 3 = endomysium
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² Axial section through metacarpus and digit: 1 = interosseus m.; 2 = digital extensor tendon; 3 = metacarpal bone; 4 = dorsal sesamoid bone; 5 = proximal phalanx; 6 = proximal sesamoid bone; 7 = metacarpal pad; 8 = digital flexor ten- dons; 9 = digital annular ligaments; 10 = digital pad; 11 = unguis (nail) Transverse section through antebrachium (horse): 1 =
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