GrossAnatLectNotes

GrossAnatLectNotes - 2010 CVM 6100 Veterinary Gross Anatomy...

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1 2010 CVM 6100 Veterinary Gross Anatomy General Anatomy & Carnivore Anatomy Lecture Notes by Thomas F. Fletcher, DVM, PhD and Christina E. Clarkson, DVM, PhD
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2 CONTENTS Connective Tissue Structures . ....................................... 3 Osteology . ........................................................................ 5 Arthrology . ...................................................................... 7 Myology . ........................................................................ 10 Biomechanics and Locomotion. ................................... 12 Serous Membranes and Cavities . ................................ 15 Formation of Serous Cavities . ..................................... 17 Nervous System. ............................................................ 19 Autonomic Nervous System . ........................................ 23 Abdominal Viscera . ...................................................... 27 Pelvis, Perineum and Micturition . .............................. 32 Female Genitalia . .......................................................... 35 Male Genitalia. .............................................................. 37 Head Features (Lectures 1 and 2) . .............................. 40 Cranial Nerves . ............................................................. 44
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3 Connective Tissue Structures Histologic types of connective tissue (c.t.): 1] Loose areolar c.t. — low fber density, contains spaces that can be flled with Fat or ±uid (edema) [Found: throughout body, under skin as superfcial Fascia and in many places as deep Fascia] 2] Dense irregularly arranged c.t. — high density oF collagen fbers, oriented in variable directions [Found: dermis; deep Fascia in some locations; periosteum; fbrous joint capsule] 3] Dense regularly arranged c.t. — high density oF parallel fbers, Forming sheets, bands, or cords [Found: aponeuroses; ligaments; tendons] Connective tissue structures identifable in gross anatomy: Dermis [G. skin] — the physically tough/strong component oF skin (deep to epidermis) Tendon — attaches muscle to bone (called aponeurosis when sheet-like) Ligament — attaches bone to bone (usually thickenings oF fbrous joint capsules) [Note: visceral ligaments located in body cavities are entirely diFFerent structures] Fascia [L. band] — collagenous fbrous tissue that hold the body together superfcial Fascia = subcutaneous tissue between skin & muscles/bone (body wall) - regionally variable in amount (site For subcutaneous injection) - contains: cutaneous muscle, mammary tissue, Fat (also edema ±uid) [ e.g., cutaneous trunci m.; superfcial muscles oF Facial expression] deep Fascia = packing/binding tissue surrounding muscles, bones, & organs - compartmentalize skeletal muscles & gives rise to aponeuroses - Forms several named structures, viz., • named regional Fascia, e.g., thoraco-lumbar Fascia, Fascia lata, etc. (Fascia is named where it is thick & distinct (i.e., dense c.t. vs. loose areolar c.t.) retinaculum [L. rope or cable] Fascia that binds passing tendons to the surFace oF the carpus or tarsus (also, transverse humeral retinaculum) raphe [G. seam] Fascia that joins right and leFt counterparts oF a par- ticular muscle at the midline (e.g., ventral abdomen = linea alba) epimysium [G. on + muscle] Fascia covering the surFace oF a muscle, depending on the muscle, it may be thin (transparent) or dense (opaque & white); also, perimysium = c.t. around muscle Fascicles; and endomysium = c.t. within muscle Fascicles) Transverse section through a skeletal muscle: 1 = epimysium; 2 = perimysium; 3 = endomysium
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4 Axial section through metacarpus and digit: 1 = interosseus m.; 2 = digital extensor tendon; 3 = metacarpal bone; 4 = dorsal sesamoid bone; 5 = proximal phalanx; 6 = proximal sesamoid bone; 7 = metacarpal pad; 8 = digital flexor ten- dons; 9 = digital annular ligaments; 10 = digital pad; 11 = unguis (nail) Transverse section through antebrachium (horse): 1 = superfcial
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This note was uploaded on 01/16/2012 for the course BI 200 taught by Professor Potter during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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GrossAnatLectNotes - 2010 CVM 6100 Veterinary Gross Anatomy...

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