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Policy Studies 2 The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization Kirsten E. Schulze 2 Policy Studies The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) East-West Center Washington
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East-West Center The East-West Center is an internationally recognized education and research organization established by the U.S. Congress in 1960 to strengthen understanding and relations between the United States and the countries of the Asia Pacific. Through its programs of cooperative study, training, seminars, and research, the Center works to promote a stable, peaceful and prosperous Asia Pacific community in which the United States is a leading and valued partner. Funding for the Center comes for the U.S. government, private foundations, individuals, cor- porations and a number of Asia Pacific governments. East-West Center Washington Established on September 1, 2001, the primary function of the East- West Center Washington is to further the East-West Center mission and the institutional objective of building a peaceful and prosperous Asia Pacific community through substantive programming activities focused on the theme of conflict reduction in the Asia Pacific region and promoting American understanding of and engagement in Asia Pacific affairs.
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The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization
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Policy Studies 2 The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization Kirsten E. Schulze
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Copyright (c) 2004 by the East-West Center Washington The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization by Kirsten E. Schulze ISBN 1-932728-03-1 (online version) ISSN 547-1330 (online version) For Printed version contact: Editor: Policy Studies East-West Center Washington 1819 L Street NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20036 Tel: (202) 293-3995 Fax: (202) 293-1402 E mail: AsianS [email protected] estCenterW ashington.org W ebsite: http://www .eastw estcenter washington.org This publication is a product from the East-West Center Washington’s Project on Internal Conflicts. For details, see pages 65-73
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Contents List of Acronyms v Executive Summary vii Indtroduction 1 GAM: A Short History 4 Ideology and Aims 6 Organizational Structure 10 The Growth of GAM: Territory and Membership 14 Factionalization and Splinter Groups 19 Financing the Struggle 24 GAM as a Military Force 29 The East Timor Blueprint 41 The Peace Process 44 GAM's Strategy of Internationalization 51 Conclusion 54
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Endnotes 57 Bibliography Project Information: The Dynamics and Management of Internal Conflicts in Asia 65 Project Purpose and Outline 67 Project Participants List 71 Background of the Aceh conflict 74 Map of Aceh, Indonesia 76
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List of Acronyms AGAM Angkatan Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Forces of the Free Aceh Movement); renamed TNA in July 2002 ASNLF Aceh-Sumatra National Liberation Front; more commonly known as GAM Brimob Brigade Mobil; paramilitary mobile police COHA Cessation of Hostilities Agreement; concluded on December 9, 2002; collapsed on May 18, 2003 DOM Daerah Operasi Militer (Military Operations Zone); not a legal status EMOI ExxonMobil Oil Indonesia FARMIDIA Aceh Student Front for Reform FMIA
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